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The Great Qumran Isaiah Scroll
For the line by line translation of this page click here
This is the 2nd page in the 16th strip of leather that makes up the scroll. As the scroll end is reached there is a decrease in the quality of the leather of the scroll. The inner most pages suffered the least damage due to oxidation because of their being tightly wrapped. The first pages and the last pages of the scroll have suffered most damage due to exposure to oxygen. Beside the chipping of the bottom margin across the whole width of the page there are also distinct “fold” lines, one which is just off center to the right that extends the whole length of the page from top to bottom. Some letters are slightly obscured by this fold. The “fold” lines at the left of the page do not extend the whole of the page beginning at the top left of the page they extend to about mid page. There are some letters that are slightly obscured by this line as well. There are a few other light “crease” lines at the center and mid-left of the page. The crease associated with the right margin is seen in only part of the text portion of the page. This line which is thought to be due to the scribe having marked a straight margin line which was later erased shows up clearly on the rest of the final pages of the scroll.
PARAGRAPHS AND SPATIUMS:
A new paragraph begins in line 3: = Chapter 63 vs.7, which is also marked by an editors horizontal mark and a companion mark as well as end of paragraph is seen in line 26. Line 27 begins chapter 65 and a new paragraph. There are small spatiums at the beginnings of new verses in only the upper portion of the page with line 10 which marks Chapter 63 vs.15 being the largest gap. Chapter 64 is not marked as a division in any way , neither by paragraph nor spatium.
There are a pair of horizontal marks, one between lines 2 and 3 and one between lines 26 and 27. These mark the intervening text as important to the editor . This is the portion of scripture that has highly imaginative description of the Messiah trampling out the grapes or sins of the people and redeeming them while he himself is bloodied.
EDITORIAL ADDITIONS TO THE TEXT:
(6th word.) A resh was left out of the word “va-y’omer” and edited in just above the line.
(1st word.) A waw is replaced from with in a word one letter back which is unusual and not needed The scribe crossed out one waw and wrote another above the line.
(8th word.) daleth is edited above the word to complete “midbar” (desert) but overwrites the top of what is probably semi vowel waw, here standing for an “i” sound.
(4th word.) An unintentional ink dot is above the
(Last word.) begins with a mem which is separated by a blemish and there is the appearance of a small mem written above this letter.
(7th word.) has a waw over “qodesho” (his holy).
Q SCRIBAL SPELLING:
Spelling and gender is often arbitrary with the Q scribe. He will spell a word differently with in a few lines. “qara’ ” (he calls) is spelled with final aleph and a few words onward the word will be spelled with final “he” as seen in the last word in line 20. In line 20 and 21 the word for “our iniquities” is written as fem pl in line 20 and masc pl in line 21.
The addition of “he” to 2ms suffixes is continued on this page and is seen often as is the addition of “he” to pf 2ms verbs. One example among many of this spelling can be seen in line 21: 6th word. The addition of “he” to :”hem” 3mpl suf is regular throughout Q with a few exceptions where “hem” or simple mem are found, see Line 5: 3rd word as an example or he added to mem 3mpl suf.; and the next word line 5: 4th word: is a good example of addition of aleph which causes confusion. Here aleph is added to prep. Lamed waw, 3ms suf “lo” (meaning to him or his). The addition of the aleph makes the form identical with negative “not.” And also on this page 2mpl “kemah” most often in Q is sometimes “kem.” For illustrations of addition of varieties of “he” see notes below 2 under line 11 in Variations,
VARIATIONS IN Q FROM THE MASORETIC TEXT:
(9th word.) Q = “tomek” and M = “somek” a possible spelling mistake in Q, i.e. tau for samek. Some current pronunciation schemes make tau a sibilant and/or the shape of the letters is similar especially when carelessly formed.
(Last word.) An aleph is added as an extra syllable. This is what is considered Aramaic “accent.” See also next entry for line 2.
(3rd, 5th, 6th, 8th words.) Q = all these word have either an aleph or “he” added to the end of the word that is not in M. See further notes on addition of Aleph and he. There are several more examples of adding final he on this page to make an open syllable where M writes the word with a final closed syllable. You might look for them as a good exercise.
(2nd word.) Q = “gema’lam” (he bestowed on them) with an aleph added to the root of the word not as in M. This is clearly a spelling mistake. Aleph is not known to be added as a semi vowel. But this may be a case where the scribe did so.
(Last and 2nd from last words.) Q = each of these words are singular in M and Q adds a yod before the 3ms suf which may indicate plural or may be a Q peculiarity in adding 3ms suf to a fem sing construct ending or any construct ending. Notice also in this word “u-be-chemlato” (and in his mercies) an addition of waw after heth to indicate a short “e” sound. See waw stands for any vowel. And see for instance line 6: next to last word as an example of a singular word with yod added before 3ms suf. See the same in line 8: 3rd from last word. But the Q scribe is not consistent in this. Compare line 8: 7th word which is the same form as line 6: next to last: without the yod.: For a greater discussion of adding superfluous yod before fem suf see introductory page.
(2nd and 3rd words.) Q reverses the order of these words as they are found in M..
(3rd word.) Q = waw cj not in M.
(10th word.) Q = ” ‘amo’ ” noun + 3ms suf (his people) with aleph appended (Aramaic “accent”)
(3rd from last word.) Q = “hamma’alehamayim” and M = “hamma’alem” These words are the same and illustrate the method of addition of letters and syllables in Q to suffixes. Both forms are 5th stem participles + 3mpl suf. with the same meaning (the one raising them up).
(3rd word.) Q lacks “lo” prep + 3ms (to him) found in M.
(Line 9: 6th word.) Q = “be-tomoth: a mistake in spelling with missing “he” and M = “bat-tehomoth” n fem or masc pl, (in the abysses).
(5th word.) M = “kiy’ ” (because) and M = “ken” (thus)
(6th 7th and 9th words.) The 6th word has “he” added to 2ms pf verb ending and 7 and 8 have “he” added to 2ms suf.. This is a Q scribal spelling peculiarity that is not always consistently used.
(Last 2 words.) Q = min ha-shamayim” and M = “mishamayim”
(5 words + 1 word.) This line illustrates the normal usage of adding “he” to 2ms sufs. There are six words on this line with 2ms suf. All but one has added “he” The third from last word “me ‘eyka” does not have the “he.” This is may be because all other 2ms sufs on this line are preceded by a consonant sound or closed syllable and this suf is preceded by a vowel sound . However the Q scribes are not consistent in appending or not appending “he.” See more about he above.
(3rd from last word.) Q = hakiyrenu” 5th stem pf 3ms + suf. 1cpl (he recognizes us) and M = “yakiyranu” 5th stem imp 3ms + suf 1cpl (he recognizes us)
(Last word.) Q = “hu’h” pronoun he not in M.
(7th and 8th words.) Q = reverse order for these two words from the order in M.
(4th word.) Q = “shevet” (tribe) and M = “shevtey” (tribes)
(7th word.) Q = “yarash” imp 3ms (he possesses) and M = “yarashu” imp 3mpl (they possess).
(After 7th word.) The Hebrew text in m continues verse 19 which is the first verse in the English text. Thus in chapter 64 the numbering for the Hebrew text is one verse ahead of the English text.
(3rd word.) is the 1st verse in Hebrew and the 2nd in English..
(5th word.) Q = a misspelling; ” ‘amasiym” and M = “hamasiym.” Q begins the word with ayin and M with he.
(Words 11 through 14.) These words are rearranged in a different order in Q and one of them is the 11th and 14th is a repetition of the same word “letsareyka.” Only one is in M.
(Last word.) It appears that the Q scribe wrote the first letter of the word as he and attempted to cross diagonally through it to indicate a mistake and then wrote the proper letter, a mem, above it. The word should be “mipheneykah” (from before your presence.)
(1st and 3rd words.) Q = waw cjs not in M.
(4th word.) Q = “hineh” and M = “hen” (behold)
(10th word.) Q = “va- ‘avonoteynu” nfpl cs + suf 1cpl (our iniquities) and M = “va ‘avonone:nu” nmpl cs + suf 1cpl (our iniquities). Q writes this word as masc in line 21 next to last word.
(9th word.) Q lacks a medial waw found in M which is unusual.
(4th word.) Q = a scribal mistake. Q = “le- ‘at” (slowly) and M = “le- ‘ad” (forever).
(8th word.) Q = “habetnah” (please look) and M uses two words for the same meaning: “habet na’ ” Q spells “nah” without aleph and M spells “na’ ” with aleph.
(2nd word.) Q adds prep kaf (like or as) to “midbar” (desert or desolation.)
(1st and 5th words.) Q = “hayu” pf 3mpl (they are) and M = “hayah” pf 3ms (it is).
(3rd word.) Q = “sha’aluniy” pf 3cpl + suf 1cs (they asked [for] me) and M = “sha ‘alu” same word without the suffix. Q seems to be a better reading as will be noted in the next verb (6th word).
(6th word.) Q = “sorach” (unrestrained) and M = “sorer” (rebellious)
(Word 8 through 11.) These words in Q provide a different reading altogether from what is found in M. Q = “ve-yinaqu yadayim ‘al ha ‘eveniym: (and they pour out an offering [with their] hands upon the stones). and M = “u-meqatteriym ‘al ha-levaniym.” (and burning incense upon the bricks) More importantly the word used by Q for “pour out” is an Aramaic word which has a related but different meaning in Hebrew. This is by far one of the more convincing additions that shows Aramaic influence in the Q Scribes. They wrote with an Aramaic accent. Other examples of Aramaic words can be found in the Introductory page section VIII.
Original Source: Ch 63:04 to 65:04