|AM or A.M||2450 A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi)|
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Anno Mundi (Latin for “in the year of the world”; Hebrew: לבריאת העולם, “to the creation of the world”), abbreviated as AM or A.M., or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history. (wikipedia.org)will be displayed in this manner: *2450 A.M.*
Chapters. 23Ch.23:1-8 see: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/jub/jub49.htm | Ch.23:9-17 see: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/jub/jub50.htm | Ch.23:18-25 … Continue reading
(i) (Ch.23:1-8) The Death and Burial of Abraham (Gen. 25:7-10).
1. And he placed two fingers of Jacob on his eyes,fn602 Cf. Gen. xlvi. 4. The closing of the eyes (by the eldest son) should strictly only be done after death, according to Jewish tradition. and he blessed the God of gods, and he covered his face and stretched out his feetfn603 Cf. Gen. xlix. 33 (of the death of Jacob). and slept the sleep of eternity,fn604 Cf. Jer. li. 39, 57. and was gathered to his fathers.
2. And notwithstanding all this Jacob was lying in his bosom, and knew not that Abraham, his father’s father, was dead.
3. And Jacob awoke from his sleep, and behold Abraham was cold as ice, and he said: “Father, father!”; but there was none that spake, and he knew that he was dead.
4. And he arose from his bosom and ran and told Rebecca, his mother; and Rebecca went to Isaac in the night and told him; and they went together, and Jacob with them, and a lamp was in his hand, and when they had gone in they found Abraham lying dead.
5. And Isaac fell on the face of his father, and wept and kissed him.fn605 Cf. Gen. l. 1.
6. And the voices were heard in the house of Abraham, and Ishmael his son arose, and went to Abraham his father, and wept over p. 128 Abraham his father, he and all the house of Abraham, and they wept with a great weeping.
7. And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the double cave,fn606 i. e. Machpelah; cf. Gen. xxv. 9. near Sarah his wife, and they wept for him forty days, all the men of his house, and Isaac and Ishmael, and all their sons, and all the sons of Keturah in their places, and the days of weeping for Abraham were ended.
8. And he lived three jubilees and four weeks of years, one hundred and seventy-five years, and completed the days of his life, being old and full of days.
(ii) (Ch.23:9-17) The decreasing Years and increasing Corruption of Mankind.
9. For the days of the forefathers, of their life, were nineteen jubilees; and after the Flood they began to grow less than nineteen jubilees, and to decrease in jubilees, and to grow old quickly, and to be full of their days by reason of manifold tribulation and the wickedness of their ways, with the exception of Abraham.fn607 ? Man’s years grow less as mankind grows more corrupt; cf. for a similar idea 4 Ezra v. 50-55.
10. For Abraham was perfect in all his deeds with the Lord, and well-pleasing in righteousness all the days of his life; and behold, he did not complete four jubilees in his life, when he had grown old by reason of the wickednessfn608 Even Abraham grew prematurely old owing to the universal wickedness. and was full of his days.
11. And all the generations which will arise from this time until the day of the great judgment will grow old quickly, before they complete two jubilees, and their knowledge will forsake them by reason of their old age [and all their knowledge will vanish away].fn609 Bracketed words a dittograph.
12. And in those days, if a man live a jubilee and a half of years, they will say regarding him: “He hath lived long, and the greater part of his days are pain and sorrow and p. 129 tribulation,fn610 Cf. Ps. xc. 10. and there is no peace:
13. For calamity followeth on calamity, and wound on wound, and tribulation on tribulation, and evil tidings on evil tidings, and illness on illness, and all evil judgements such as these, one with another, illness and overthrow, and snow and frost and ice, and fever, and chills, and torpor, and famine, and death, and sword, and captivity, and all kinds of calamities and pains.”fn611 ? a picture of contemporary misfortunes (200 B.C. and following years).
14. And all these will come on an evil generation, which transgresseth on the earth: their works are uncleanness and fornication, and pollution and abominations.fn612 Cf. vii. 21, xx. 5, xxii. 16.
15. Then they will say: “The days of the forefathers were many (even), unto a thousand years, and were good; but, behold, the days of our life, if a man hath lived many, are three score years and ten, and, if he is strong, four score years, and those evilfn613 Cf. Ps. xc. 10. and there is no peace in the days of this evil generation.”
16. And in that generation the sons will convict their fathers and their elders of sin and unrighteousness,fn614 ? the protest of the Hasidim (“the pious”) against the Hellenizers; cf. 1 Macc. ii. 42 ff. and of the words of their mouth and the great wickednesses which they perpetrate, and concerning their forsaking the covenantfn615 Cf. 1 Macc. i. 15. which the Lord made between them and Him, that they should observe and do all His commandments and His ordinances and all His laws, without departing either to the right hand or to the left.fn616 Cf. 1 Macc. ii. 21 f. (Deut. v. 31-32, xxviii. 14).
17. For all have done evil,fn617 Cf. 1 Macc. i. 52-53. and every mouth speaketh iniquityfn618 Cf. 1 Macc. ii, 6. and all their works are an uncleanness and an abomination, and all their ways are pollution, uncleanness and destruction.
(iii) (Ch.23:18-25) The Messianic Woes. [Eschatological partly.]
p. 130 18. Behold the earth will be destroyed on account of all their works, and there will be no seed of the vine, and no oil; for their works are altogether faithless, and they will all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the fish of the sea,fn619 Cf. 4 Ezra v. 7 (Ezek. xxxviii. 20). on account of the children of men.
19. And they will strive one with another, the young with the old, and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, and the lowly with the great, and the beggar with the prince,fn620 Internecine strife is a standing feature in such eschatological passages; cf. 4 Ezra vi. 24; Matt. xxiv. 10; Ap. Bar., lxx. 3-4. on account of the law and the covenant;fn621 Here the writer passes to a description of what is happening in his own time. for they have forgotten commandment, and covenant, and feasts, and months, and Sabbaths, and jubilees, and all judgements.
20. And they will stand (with bows and) swords and war to turn them back into the way;fn622 “Way” here = the true path of religion; cf. Isa. xxx. 21 Acts ix. 2, etc. but they will not return until much blood hath been shed on the earth, one by another.fn623 The conflicts between the early Maccabeans (at the head of the national party in Judah) and the Hellenizers seem to be referred to.
21. And those who have escaped will not return from their wickedness to the way of righteousness, but they will all exalt themselves to deceit and wealth, that they may each take all that is his neighbour’s, and they will name the great name, but not in truth and not in righteousness, and they will defile the holy of hollies with their uncleanness and the corruption of their pollution.fn624 Probably the machinations of the Hellenizing party under the High Priest Alcimus are referred to; cf. 1 Macc. ix. 54.
22. And a great punishment will befall the deeds of this generation p. 131 from the Lord, and He will give them over to the sword and to judgment and to captivity, and to be plundered and devoured.
23. And He will wake up against them the sinners of the Gentiles, who have neither mercy nor compassion, and who will respect the person of none, neither old nor young, nor any one, for they are more wicked and strong to do evil than all the children of men.
And they will use violence against Israel and transgression against Jacob,
And much blood will be shed upon the earth,
And there will be none to gather and none to bury.fn625 The sufferings of the nation up to (but not including) Simon’s High Priesthood (142-135 B.C.) may be referred to. For the last line cf. Jer. viii. 2.
24. In those days they will cry aloud,
And call and pray that they may be saved from the hand of the sinners, the Gentiles;fn626 Cf. Gal. ii. 15.
But none will be saved.
25. And the heads of the children will be white with grey hair,fn627 Cf. Sibylline Oracles, ii. 155 (“children with grey hair on their temples born”)–one of the signs of the coming in of the Messianic age.
And a child of three weeks will appear old like a man of one hundred years,
And their stature will be destroyed by tribulation and oppression.
(iv) (Ch.23:26-32) Renewed Study of the Law followed by a Renewal of Mankind. The Messianic Kingdom and the Blessedness of the Righteous (cf. Isa. lxv. 17 ff.) [Eschatological.]
26. And in those days the children will begin to study the laws,
And to seek the commandments,
And to return to the path of righteousness.
27. And the days will begin to grow many and increase amongst those children of men, p. 132
Till their days draw nigh to one thousand years,fn628 The span of life originally designed for mankind. Adam fell short of this because of his sin.
And to a greater number of years than (before) was the number of the days.
28. And there will be no old man
Nor one who is not satisfied with his days,
For all will be (as) children and youths.fn629 Cf. Isa. lxv. 20.
29. And all their days they will complete and live in peace and in joy,fn630 Cf. Isa. lxv. 14.
And there will be no Satanfn631 Cf. Assumpt. Moses x. 1. nor any evil destroyer;
For all their days will be days of blessing and healing,fn632 Cf. i. 29.
30. And at that time the Lord will heal His servants,
And they will rise upfn633 Probably there is no reference here to a resurrection. Apparently the Messianic kingdom depicted is a temporary one. The eschatology harmonizes with that of 1 Enoch xci.-civ. and seefn634 i.e. enjoy. great peace,
And drive out their adversaries.
And the righteous will see and be thankful,
And rejoice with joy for ever and ever,
And will see all their judgments and all their curses on their enemies.
31. And their bones will rest in the earth,
And their spirits will have much joy,fn635 i.e. they will enjoy a blessed immortality (with no bodily resurrection); cf. 1 Enoch ciii. 3-4.
And they will know that it is the Lord who executeth judgment,
And showeth mercy to hundreds and thousands and to all that love Him.fn636 Cf. 4 Ezra vii. 132 ff.
32. And do thou, Moses, write down these words; for thus are they written, and they record (them) on the heavenly tables for a testimony for the generations for ever.
|↑1||Ch.23:1-8 see: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/jub/jub49.htm | Ch.23:9-17 see: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/jub/jub50.htm | Ch.23:18-25 see: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/jub/jub51.htm | Ch.23:26-32 see: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/jub/jub52.htm|
|↑2||fn602 Cf. Gen. xlvi. 4. The closing of the eyes (by the eldest son) should strictly only be done after death, according to Jewish tradition.|
|↑3||fn603 Cf. Gen. xlix. 33 (of the death of Jacob).|
|↑4||fn604 Cf. Jer. li. 39, 57.|
|↑5||fn605 Cf. Gen. l. 1.|
|↑6||fn606 i. e. Machpelah; cf. Gen. xxv. 9.|
|↑7||fn607 ? Man’s years grow less as mankind grows more corrupt; cf. for a similar idea 4 Ezra v. 50-55.|
|↑8||fn608 Even Abraham grew prematurely old owing to the universal wickedness.|
|↑9||fn609 Bracketed words a dittograph.|
|↑10||fn610 Cf. Ps. xc. 10.|
|↑11||fn611 ? a picture of contemporary misfortunes (200 B.C. and following years).|
|↑12||fn612 Cf. vii. 21, xx. 5, xxii. 16.|
|↑13||fn613 Cf. Ps. xc. 10.|
|↑14||fn614 ? the protest of the Hasidim (“the pious”) against the Hellenizers; cf. 1 Macc. ii. 42 ff.|
|↑15||fn615 Cf. 1 Macc. i. 15.|
|↑16||fn616 Cf. 1 Macc. ii. 21 f. (Deut. v. 31-32, xxviii. 14).|
|↑17||fn617 Cf. 1 Macc. i. 52-53.|
|↑18||fn618 Cf. 1 Macc. ii, 6.|
|↑19||fn619 Cf. 4 Ezra v. 7 (Ezek. xxxviii. 20).|
|↑20||fn620 Internecine strife is a standing feature in such eschatological passages; cf. 4 Ezra vi. 24; Matt. xxiv. 10; Ap. Bar., lxx. 3-4.|
|↑21||fn621 Here the writer passes to a description of what is happening in his own time.|
|↑22||fn622 “Way” here = the true path of religion; cf. Isa. xxx. 21 Acts ix. 2, etc.|
|↑23||fn623 The conflicts between the early Maccabeans (at the head of the national party in Judah) and the Hellenizers seem to be referred to.|
|↑24||fn624 Probably the machinations of the Hellenizing party under the High Priest Alcimus are referred to; cf. 1 Macc. ix. 54.|
|↑25||fn625 The sufferings of the nation up to (but not including) Simon’s High Priesthood (142-135 B.C.) may be referred to. For the last line cf. Jer. viii. 2.|
|↑26||fn626 Cf. Gal. ii. 15.|
|↑27||fn627 Cf. Sibylline Oracles, ii. 155 (“children with grey hair on their temples born”)–one of the signs of the coming in of the Messianic age.|
|↑28||fn628 The span of life originally designed for mankind. Adam fell short of this because of his sin.|
|↑29||fn629 Cf. Isa. lxv. 20.|
|↑30||fn630 Cf. Isa. lxv. 14.|
|↑31||fn631 Cf. Assumpt. Moses x. 1.|
|↑32||fn632 Cf. i. 29.|
|↑33||fn633 Probably there is no reference here to a resurrection. Apparently the Messianic kingdom depicted is a temporary one. The eschatology harmonizes with that of 1 Enoch xci.-civ.|
|↑34||fn634 i.e. enjoy.|
|↑35||fn635 i.e. they will enjoy a blessed immortality (with no bodily resurrection); cf. 1 Enoch ciii. 3-4.|
|↑36||fn636 Cf. 4 Ezra vii. 132 ff.|