[2:08] 1 Enoch, Martin McNamara writes.


“This astronomical work is presupposed by Jubilees 4:17, 21 which may have been composed about the mid-second century B.C. This would indicate a date of composition for The Astronomical Book in the first quarter of the second century at the latest. J. T. Milik thinks it is alluded to by the Hellenistic Jewish historian Eupolemus in a work completed 158 B.C. The Book of Jubilees, however, may have been composed later in the second century B.C., but this need not affect the date to be assigned to Enoch 72-82. Four copies of an Aramaic Astronomical work attributed to Enoch have been found at Qumran, the earliest in Milik’s opinion dating from the late third or the beginning of the second century B.C., the latest from the first years of teh first century A.D. These Qumran manuscripts have a longer text than the Ethiopic, especially the section on calendrical reckoning. Milik believes that the original Aramaic text is older than Gen 5:23, which presupposes it and that it was connected with the calendrical reckoning of a highly theoretical nature in the Persian period, but was later introduced by the Essenes into their liturgical lfie. Milik also thinks that archaic features of the literary and scientific content of the Astronomical Book of Enoch link it with ancient Babylonian (and indeed Sumerian) literature, and that the description of the terrestrial orb in Enoch 77 leads us, with complete certainty, to the Mesopotamian centres of scholarship.”

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