Brothers of Jesus

Referenced in the Bible:

Mark 6:3

Matthew 13:55-56

Galatians 1:19

1 Corinthians 9:5

Key Verse: 

Mark 6:3

v.3 Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon? And are not his sisters here with us?” And they took offense at him.

Matthew 13:55-56

v.55 Is not this the carpenter’s son? Is not his mother called Mary? And are not his brothers James and Joseph and Simon and Judas? 56 And are not all his sisters with us? Where then did this man get all these things?”

Galatians 1:19

v.19 But I saw none of the other apostles except James the Lord’s brother.

1 Corinthians 9:5

v.5 Do we not have the right to take along a believing wife, as do the other apostles and the brothers of the Lord and Cephas?


THE NEW TESTAMENT:1)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brothers_of_Jesus

Describes James, Joseph (Joses), Judas (Jude) and Simon as brothers of Jesus (Greek: ἀδελφοὶ, translit. adelphoi, lit. ‘brethren’).2).Greek New Testament, Matthew 13:55: “οὐχ οὖτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός; οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται μαριὰμ καὶ οἱἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ ἰάκωβος καὶ ἰωσὴφ καὶ σίμων καὶ ἰούδας;” Also mentioned, but not named, are sisters of Jesus. Some scholars argue that these brothers, especially James,3).Paul the Apostle refers to James as “the Lord’s brother” and as one of the “pillars” alongside Cephas and JohnGalatians 1:18–19;2:9–10. held positions of special honor in the early Christian church.

Catholic, Assyrian, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox, as well as some Anglicans and Lutherans, believe in the perpetual virginity of Mary, as did the Protestant leaders Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin,4)Calvin, John (2009). Commentary on Matthew, Mark, Luke – Volume 2. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. ASIN B002C1BMTI. and John Wesley. Those who hold this belief reject the claim that Jesus had biological siblings and maintain that these brothers and sisters received this designation because of their close association with the nuclear family of Jesus, and are actually either his cousins or children of Joseph from a previous marriage.

In the 3rd century, biological relatives on account of their connection with the nuclear family of Jesus, without explicit reference to brothers or sisters, were called the desposyni,5)Africanus, Julius, The Epistle to Aristides, p. 242. from the Greek δεσπόσυνοι, plural ofδεσπόσυνος, meaning “of or belonging to the master or lord”.6).δεσπόσυνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. The term was used by Sextus Julius Africanus, a writer of the early 3rd century.

Jesus’s brothers and sisters: 

The Gospel of Mark 6:3 and the Gospel of Matthew 13:55-56 state that James, Joses (or Joseph), Judas, and Simon were the brothers of Jesus, the son of Mary. The same verses also mention unnamed sisters of Jesus. Another verse in the Epistle to the Galatians 1:19 mentions seeing James, “the Lord’s brother”, and none other of the apostles except Peter, when Paul went to Jerusalem after his conversion.

The “brothers of the Lord” are also mentioned, alongside (but separate from) Cephas and the apostles in 1 Corinthians 9:5, in which it is mentioned that they had wives. Some scholars claim that Jesus’ relatives may have held positions of authority in the Jerusalem area until Trajan excluded Jews from the new city that he built on its ruins.7)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Jerusalem”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press.

That the brothers were children of both Mary and Joseph was held by some people of the early centuries; The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church claimed that Tertullian (c. 160 – c. 225) was one of them.8)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press.

The 3rd-century Antidicomarianites (“opponents of Mary”) maintained that, when Joseph became Mary’s husband, he was a widower with six children, and that he had normal marital relations with Mary, but they later held that Jesus was not born of these relations.9)William H. Brackney, Historical Dictionary of Radical Christianity (Scarecrow Press 2012 ISBN 978-0-81087179-3), p. 31 Bonosus was a bishop who in the late 4th century held that Mary had other children after Jesus, for which the other bishops of his province condemned him.10)Brackney 2012, p. 57 Jovinian, and various Arian teachers such as Photinus held a similar view.

When Helvidius proposed it, again in the late 4th century, Jerome, representing the general opinion of the Church, maintained that Mary remained always a virgin; he held that those who were called the brothers and sisters of Jesus were actually children of Mary’s sister, another Mary, whom he considered the wife of Clopas.11)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press., 12).Painter, John (2004), Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition, University of South Carolina Press, p. 326.

The terms “brothers” and “sisters” as used in this context are open to different interpretations,13)Brown, Raymond Edward; Achtemeier, Paul J (1978), Mary in the New Testament: A Collaborative Assessment by Protestant and Roman Catholic Scholars, Paulist Press, pp. 65–68,ISBN 0-8091-2168-9. and have been argued to refer to children of Joseph by a previous marriage (the view of Epiphanius of Salamis 14)of Salamis, Epiphanius. The Panarion Book I (Sects 1-46) Part 29:3:9 and 29:4:1. masseiana.org. Retrieved 11 September 2015..), Mary’s sister’s children (the view of Jerome), or children of Clopas, who according to Hegesippus was Joseph’s brother,15)of Caesarea, Eusebius, “11”, Church History, Book III. and of a woman who was not a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus (a modern proposal).16)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press.

As church leaders:

Robert W. Funk, founder of the Jesus Seminar, says that according to the Gospel of Mark Jesus’ mother and brothers were at first sceptical of Jesus’ ministry but later became part of the Christian movement.17).Funk 1998, pp. 527–34. James, “the Lord’s brother”, presided over the Jerusalem church after the apostles dispersed and other kinsmen probably exercised some leadership among the Christians in the area until the emperor Hadrian built Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem and banished all Jews from there (c. 135), after which point the Jerusalem Christians were entirely of Gentile origin.18)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Jerusalem”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press. Traditionally it is believed the Jerusalem Christians waited out the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135) in Pella in the Decapolis. The Jerusalem Sanhedrin relocated to Jamnia sometime c. 70.

According to The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, when Peter the Apostle left Jerusalem, it was James who became leader of the church in Jerusalem and was held in high regard by the Jewish Christians.19)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “James, St”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press. Hegesippus reports that he was executed by the Sanhedrin in 62.20)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “James, St”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press.

Sextus Julius Africanus’s reference to “desposyni” (blood relatives of Jesus related to his nuclear family) is preserved in Eusebius of Caesarea‘s Ecclesiastical History:21)Africanus, Julius, The Epistle to Aristides, p. 242., 22)of Cæsarea, Eusebius, “Ecclesiastical history”, Bibliotheca Augustana, DE: HS Augsburg, 1.

For the relatives of our Lord according to the flesh, whether with the desire of boasting or simply wishing to state the fact, in either case truly, have handed down the following account…

 
But as there had been kept in the archives up to that time the genealogies of the Hebrews as well as of those who traced their lineage back to proselytes, such as Achior the Ammonite and Ruth the Moabitess, and to those who were mingled with the Israelites and came out of Egypt with them, Herod, inasmuch as the lineage of the Israelites contributed nothing to his advantage, and since he was goaded with the consciousness of his own ignoble extraction, burned all the genealogical records, thinking that he might appear of noble origin if no one else were able, from the public registers, to trace back his lineage to the patriarchs or proselytes and to those mingled with them, who were called Georae.

 
A few of the careful, however, having obtained private records of their own, either by remembering the names or by getting them in some other way from the registers, pride themselves on preserving the memory of their noble extraction. Among these are those already mentioned, called Desposyni, on account of their connection with the family of the Saviour. Coming from Nazara and Cochaba, villages of Judea, into other parts of the world, they drew the aforesaid genealogy from memory and from the book of daily records as faithfully as possible.

 
Whether then the case stand thus or not no one could find a clearer explanation, according to my own opinion and that of every candid person. And let this suffice us, for, although we can urge no testimony in its support, we have nothing better or truer to offer. In any case the Gospel states the truth.” And at the end of the same epistle he adds these words: “Matthan, who was descended from Solomon, begat Jacob. And when Matthan was dead, Melchi, who was descended from Nathan begat Eli by the same woman. Eli and Jacob were thus uterine brothers. Eli having died childless, Jacob raised up seed to him, begetting Joseph, his own son by nature, but by law the son of Eli. Thus Joseph was the son of both.

Eusebius has also preserved an extract from a work by Hegesippus (c.110–c.180), who wrote five books (now lost except for some quotations by Eusebius) of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church. The extract refers to the period from the reign of Domitian (81–96) to that of Trajan (98–117), and includes the statement that two Desposyni brought before Domitian later became leaders of the churches:23)of Cæsarea, Eusebius, “Ecclesiastical history”, Bibliotheca Augustana, DE: HS Augsburg, 3.

There still survived of the kindred of the Lord the grandsons of Judas, who according to the flesh was called his brother. These were informed against, as belonging to the family of David, and Evocatus brought them before Domitian Caesar: for that emperor dreaded the advent of Christ, as Herod had done.

 
So he asked them whether they were of the family of David; and they confessed they were. Next he asked them what property they had, or how much money they possessed. They both replied that they had only 9000 denaria between them, each of them owning half that sum; but even this they said they did not possess in cash, but as the estimated value of some land, consisting of thirty-nine plethra only, out of which they had to pay the dues, and that they supported themselves by their own labour. And then they began to hold out their hands, exhibiting, as proof of their manual labour, the roughness of their skin, and the corns raised on their hands by constant work.

 
Being then asked concerning Christ and His kingdom, what was its nature, and when and where it was to appear, they returned answer that it was not of this world, nor of the earth, but belonging to the sphere of heaven and angels, and would make its appearance at the end of time, when He shall come in glory, and judge living and dead, and render to every one according to the course of his life.

 
Thereupon Domitian passed no condemnation upon them, but treated them with contempt, as too mean for notice, and let them go free. At the same time he issued a command, and put a stop to the persecution against the Church.

 
When they were released they became leaders of the churches, as was natural in the case of those who were at once martyrs and of the kindred of the Lord. And, after the establishment of peace to the Church, their lives were prolonged to the reign of Trajan.

Degree of consanguinity between jesus and his brothers:

The New Testament names James the Just, Joses, Simon, and Jude as the brothers (Greek adelphoi) of Jesus (Mark 6:3, Matthew 13:55, John 7:3, Acts 1:14, 1 Corinthians 9:5)24)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press.

Etymology

The etymology of the word “brother” (adelphos) originally comes from “of the same womb” (a-delphys),25)Segal, Charles (1999), Tragedy and civilization: an interpretation of Sophocles, p. 184, word for ‘brother,’ adelphos, from a- (‘same,’ equivalent to homo-) and delphys (‘womb,’ equivalent to splanchna). though, in New Testament usage, the Christian and Jewish meaning of “brethren” is wider, and is applied even to members of the same religious community.26).Bible Hub: Matthew 12:50. In the Bible, the Greek words adelphos and adelphe were not restricted to their literal meaning of a full brother or sister nor were their plurals.27).Bethel (1907).

There are several views from an early date over whether the Greek term adelphos applied in these accounts to people described as adelphoi of Jesus means that they full brothers, half brothers, stepbrothers, or cousins. Helvidius, quoting Tertullian in support of his view, claims that the adelphoi were children of Mary and Joseph born after Jesus;28)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press., 29)T. C. Lawler, Walter J. Burghardt, ed. (1951), Tertullian, Treatises on marriage and remarriage, p. 160 yet Jerome replied that Tertullian did “not belong to the Church”, and he argues that the adelphoi were Jesus’ cousins.30)Jerome, “The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary – Against Helvidius”, in Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 6, Translated by W.H. Fremantle, G. Lewis and W.G. Martley (1893 ed.), Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co. (retrieved from New Advent). Some scholars consider Helvidius’ view as the most natural inference from the New Testament.31)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press. In support to this it is occasionally noted that James (Jacob Iakobos) as oldest of the brothers takes the name of Joseph’s father (also James, Iakobos in the Solomonic genealogy of Jesus in Matthew), when in Bible times the grandson occasionally gets the name of the grandfather.32)Hastings (1927), “Part 4”, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, p. 653, In later times, but still within the period covered by the Bible, the grandson often gets the name of the grandfather.

The term adelphos (brother in general) is distinct from anepsios (cousin, nephew, niece).33)M. Miller (1953), “Greek Kinship Terminology”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 73, Cambridge University Press, pp. 46–52,doi:10.2307/628235, JSTOR 628235., 34).431. anepsios, Bible Hub Second-century Christian writer Hegesippus distinguishes between those who were anepsioi of Jesus and his adelphoi.35)Shanks, Hershel; Witherington III, Ben, The Brother of Jesus – The Dramatic Story & Meaning of the First Archaeological Link to Jesus & His Family, pp. 94–95, retrieved 4 August 2014,There was indeed a word for cousin in Greek, anepsios, and it is never used of James or the other siblings of Jesus. It is interesting how the second-century Christian writer Hegesippus distinguishes [page 95] between those who were cousins of Jesus (anepsioi), and James and Jude, who are called brothers of Jesus (cited in the fourth-century historian Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. 4.22.4; see 2.23.4, 3.20.1). However Jesus and his disciples’ native language was Aramaic (as in Matthew 27:46; Mark 5:41),36)Allen C. Myers, ed. (1987). “Aramaic”. The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. p. 72.ISBN 0-8028-2402-1. which could not distinguish between a blood brother or sister and a cousin.37)Robert Schihl, “The Perpetual Virginity of Mary”, A Biblical Apologetic of the Catholic Faith, retrieved from EWTN Aramaic, like Biblical Hebrew, does not contain a word for “cousin”.38)John Saward (2002), Cradle of Redeeming Love: the Theology of the Christmas Mystery, San Francisco: Ignatius Press, p. 18,ISBN 0-89870-886-9.

Aramaic and Hebrew inclined to use circumlocutions to point out blood relationships, calling some people “brothers of Jesus” would not have always implied the same biological mother.39).Bethel (1907). But, “sons of the mother of Jesus” would have been used to indicate a same mother. Scholars and theologians, who assert this view, point out that Jesus was called “the son of Mary” rather than “a son of Mary” in his hometown (Mark 6:3).40)Achille Camerlynck (1910), “St. James the Less”, The Catholic Encyclopedia, 8, New York: Robert Appleton Company (retrieved from New Advent).

Relationship of Jesus’ brothers to Mary:

According to the surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis, who lived circa 70-163 AD, “Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus” would be the mother of James the Just, Simon, Judas (identified as Jude the Apostle), and Joseph (Joses). Papias identifies this “Mary” as the sister of Mary, mother of Jesus, and thus as the maternal aunt of Jesus.41)Papias of Hierapolis. Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord. Fragment X. Peter Kirby. Retrieved 10 September 2015. The Anglican theologian J.B. Lightfoot dismissed Papias’ evidence as spurious.42).Lightfoot, J.B. (1865). “The Brethren of the Lord”.philologos.org. Retrieved 2016-05-31. The testimony of Papias is frequently quoted at the head of the patristic authorities, as favouring the view of Jerome. […]. It is strange that able and intelligent critics should not have seen through a fabrication which is so manifestly spurious. […] [T]he passage was written by a mediaeval namesake of the Bishop of Hierapolis, Papias […] who lived in the 11th century., 43).http://www.textexcavation.com/papias.html.

By the 3rd century the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary had become well established; important early Christian theologians such as Hippolytus (170-235), Eusebius (260/265-339/340) and Epiphanius (c. 310/320-403) defended it. The early church had not accepted that Mary had any children apart from Jesus.44)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press. Eusebius and Epiphanius held that these men were Joseph’s sons from (an unrecorded) former marriage.45)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press., 46)of Salamis, Epiphanius. The Panarion Book I (Sects 1-46) Part 29:3:9 and 29:4:1. masseiana.org. Retrieved 11 September 2015. Epiphanius adds that Joseph became the father of James and his three brothers (Joses, Simeon, Judah) and two sisters (a Salome and a Mary) or (a Salome and an Anna)47)College, St. Epiphanius of Cyprus ; translated by Young Richard Kim, Calvin (2014). Ancoratus 60:1. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-8132-2591-3. Retrieved 22 September 2015. with James being the elder sibling. James and his siblings were not children of Mary but were children from a previous marriage. Joseph’s first wife died; many years later, at the age of eighty, “he took Mary (mother of Jesus)”. According to Epiphanius the Scriptures call them “brothers of the Lord” to confound their opponents.48)Williams, translated by Frank (1994). The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis : Books II and III (Sects 47-80, De Fide). Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 607. ISBN 9789004098985. Retrieved 18 September 2015., 49)Williams, translated by Frank (2013). The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis. (Second, revised edition. ed.). Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. p. 36. ISBN 9789004228412. Retrieved 18 September 2015. Origen (184-254) also wrote that “according to the Gospel of Peter the brethren of Jesus were sons of Joseph by a former wife, whom he married before Mary”.50)Origen, Commentary on Matthew, Newadvent.org, §10.17.

Jerome (c. 347-420), another important early theologian, also held the perpetual virginity doctrine, but argued that these adelphoi were sons of Mary’s sister, whom Jerome identified as Mary of Cleopas.51)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press., 52)Harrison, Everett F (1968), A Short Life of Christ, p. 58, In opposition to Helvidius, Jerome (Hierony- mus, hence the name Hieronymian for his view) insisted that the brethren were kinsmen, specifically first cousins, being sons of Mary’s sister, namely, that Mary who was the wife of Clopas. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church mentions that a modern scholar, whom it does not identify, has proposed that these men were the sons of Clopas (Joseph’s brother according to Hegesippus) and of Mary, the wife of Cleopas (not necessarily referring to Jesus’ mother’s sister).53)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press.

Roman Catholic and Eastern Christianity maintained the doctrine of Early Christianity that Mary was a perpetual virgin;54)Origen, Commentary on Matthew, Newadvent.org, §10.17. many of the early Protestants, including Luther 55).Martin Luther on Mary’s Perpetual Virginity. and Zwingli,56)Zwingli, Ulrich (1905), “Eini Predigt von der ewig reinen Magd Maria”, in Egli, Emil; Finsler, Georg; Zwingli-Verein, Georg, Huldreich Zwinglis sämtliche Werke (in German), 1, Zürich: C. A. Schwetschke & Sohn, p. 385, retrieved 2008-07-01, I firmly believe that [Mary], according to the words of the gospel as a pure Virgin brought forth for us the Son of God and in childbirth and after childbirth forever remained a pure, intact Virgin. also held this view, as did John Wesley, one of the founders of Methodism.57).The Works of the Rev. John Wesley, p. 112, I believe that He was made man, joining the human nature with the divine in one person; being conceived by the singular operation of the Holy Ghost, and born of the blessed Virgin Mary, who, as well after as before she brought Him forth, continued a pure and unspotted virgin. Roman Catholics, following Jerome, conclude that the adelphoi were Jesus’ cousins, while Eastern Orthodox, following Eusebius and Epiphanius, argue that they were Joseph’s children by his (unrecorded) first wife. But the Catholic Church only defined a doctrine that they are not biological children of Mary,58)Jimmy Akin, Ossuary of James – I: Burial Box of St. James Found?, Catholic Answers their exact status, either as cousins or stepbrothers (children of Joseph), is not defined as a doctrine.

Modern Protestants view the adelphoi as Jesus’ half-brothers or do not specify, since the accounts in the Gospels do not speak of Mary’s relationship to them but only to Jesus.59).Witherington, Ben III, “Jesus’ Extended Family”, Bible Review,19 (3): 30–31, So James, according to this view, would be Jesus’ younger half-brother., 60)The Nelson Study Bible (NKJV), pp. 2102, 2156, James, the half brother of Jesus, traditionally called ‘the Just’ […] Jude the brother of James and the half brother of the Lord Jesus. The term “half brother” is used[by whom?] to denote parentage, not genetics. In this view, the other brothers and sisters listed in the Gospel passages would have the same relationship to Jesus. However, some Protestants reject the term “half brother” because it is too specific; the Gospel accounts refer to these relatives as brothers and sisters of Jesus, without specifying their parents, and refer to Mary only in relation to Jesus. Certain critical scholars of the Jesus Seminar say that the doctrine of perpetual virginity has obscured recognition that Jesus had full brothers and sisters.61).Funk 1998, pp. 51–161.

In the Hebrew-language Book of Genesis, all the other sons of Jacob are repeatedly called brothers of Joseph, although they were children of different mothers.62)For instance, in 16 of the 36 verses of the chapter Genesis 37. Similarly, the Second Book of Samuel describes Tamar as a sister both of Amnon and of Absalom,63).2 Samuel 13. two of David‘s sons by different mothers.64).2 Samuel 3:2-3.

FAMILY TREES AND PEDIGREES:

Aside from the genealogies of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke and Gospel of Matthew, there have been several presentations of theories about a family tree of Jesus’ immediate nuclear family:

In the article “The ‘Brethren of the Lord'” in A Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture,65)S. Shearer (1953). “The ‘Bretheren of the Lord'”. In Orchard, Orchard. A Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture. § 673f. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons. gives the following tree.


drawit-diagram-1


In a book produced by Augsburg Fortress, the official publishing house of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America,66)Rousseau, John J; Arav, Rami (1995), Jesus and His World, Fortress, ISBN 978-0-80062903-8. John J. Rousseau and Rami Arav present the following diagram of relationships in line with their view that the brothers and sisters mentioned were children of Joseph and Mary;67)“Jesus’ Family Tree”, Frontline, PBS Though The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church states that the view of early church (should be including those Fathers) was the “brothers” were son of Joseph by a former marriage.68)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press.


drawit-diagram



SOURCES

1.0) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brothers_of_Jesus

2.0) Source: bibleresources.americanbible.org | Tittle: “A Guide to Key Events, Characters and Themes of the Bible”


Related: Biblical Overviews List of Key Old Testament Characters

References   [ + ]

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brothers_of_Jesus
2. .Greek New Testament, Matthew 13:55: “οὐχ οὖτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός; οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται μαριὰμ καὶ οἱἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ ἰάκωβος καὶ ἰωσὴφ καὶ σίμων καὶ ἰούδας;”
3. .Paul the Apostle refers to James as “the Lord’s brother” and as one of the “pillars” alongside Cephas and JohnGalatians 1:18–19;2:9–10.
4. Calvin, John (2009). Commentary on Matthew, Mark, Luke – Volume 2. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. ASIN B002C1BMTI.
5, 21. Africanus, Julius, The Epistle to Aristides, p. 242.
6. .δεσπόσυνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
7, 18. Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Jerusalem”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press.
8, 11, 16, 24, 28, 31, 44, 45, 51, 53, 68. Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”,The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press.
9. William H. Brackney, Historical Dictionary of Radical Christianity (Scarecrow Press 2012 ISBN 978-0-81087179-3), p. 31
10. Brackney 2012, p. 57
12. .Painter, John (2004), Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition, University of South Carolina Press, p. 326.
13. Brown, Raymond Edward; Achtemeier, Paul J (1978), Mary in the New Testament: A Collaborative Assessment by Protestant and Roman Catholic Scholars, Paulist Press, pp. 65–68,ISBN 0-8091-2168-9.
14, 46. of Salamis, Epiphanius. The Panarion Book I (Sects 1-46) Part 29:3:9 and 29:4:1. masseiana.org. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
15. of Caesarea, Eusebius, “11”, Church History, Book III.
17. .Funk 1998, pp. 527–34.
19, 20. Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “James, St”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press.
22. of Cæsarea, Eusebius, “Ecclesiastical history”, Bibliotheca Augustana, DE: HS Augsburg, 1.
23. of Cæsarea, Eusebius, “Ecclesiastical history”, Bibliotheca Augustana, DE: HS Augsburg, 3.
25. Segal, Charles (1999), Tragedy and civilization: an interpretation of Sophocles, p. 184, word for ‘brother,’ adelphos, from a- (‘same,’ equivalent to homo-) and delphys (‘womb,’ equivalent to splanchna).
26. .Bible Hub: Matthew 12:50.
27, 39. .Bethel (1907).
29. T. C. Lawler, Walter J. Burghardt, ed. (1951), Tertullian, Treatises on marriage and remarriage, p. 160
30. Jerome, “The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary – Against Helvidius”, in Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 6, Translated by W.H. Fremantle, G. Lewis and W.G. Martley (1893 ed.), Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co. (retrieved from New Advent).
32. Hastings (1927), “Part 4”, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, p. 653, In later times, but still within the period covered by the Bible, the grandson often gets the name of the grandfather.
33. M. Miller (1953), “Greek Kinship Terminology”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 73, Cambridge University Press, pp. 46–52,doi:10.2307/628235, JSTOR 628235.
34. .431. anepsios, Bible Hub
35. Shanks, Hershel; Witherington III, Ben, The Brother of Jesus – The Dramatic Story & Meaning of the First Archaeological Link to Jesus & His Family, pp. 94–95, retrieved 4 August 2014,There was indeed a word for cousin in Greek, anepsios, and it is never used of James or the other siblings of Jesus. It is interesting how the second-century Christian writer Hegesippus distinguishes [page 95] between those who were cousins of Jesus (anepsioi), and James and Jude, who are called brothers of Jesus (cited in the fourth-century historian Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. 4.22.4; see 2.23.4, 3.20.1).
36. Allen C. Myers, ed. (1987). “Aramaic”. The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. p. 72.ISBN 0-8028-2402-1.
37. Robert Schihl, “The Perpetual Virginity of Mary”, A Biblical Apologetic of the Catholic Faith, retrieved from EWTN
38. John Saward (2002), Cradle of Redeeming Love: the Theology of the Christmas Mystery, San Francisco: Ignatius Press, p. 18,ISBN 0-89870-886-9.
40. Achille Camerlynck (1910), “St. James the Less”, The Catholic Encyclopedia, 8, New York: Robert Appleton Company (retrieved from New Advent).
41. Papias of Hierapolis. Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord. Fragment X. Peter Kirby. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
42. .Lightfoot, J.B. (1865). “The Brethren of the Lord”.philologos.org. Retrieved 2016-05-31. The testimony of Papias is frequently quoted at the head of the patristic authorities, as favouring the view of Jerome. […]. It is strange that able and intelligent critics should not have seen through a fabrication which is so manifestly spurious. […] [T]he passage was written by a mediaeval namesake of the Bishop of Hierapolis, Papias […] who lived in the 11th century.
43. .http://www.textexcavation.com/papias.html.
47. College, St. Epiphanius of Cyprus ; translated by Young Richard Kim, Calvin (2014). Ancoratus 60:1. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-8132-2591-3. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
48. Williams, translated by Frank (1994). The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis : Books II and III (Sects 47-80, De Fide). Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 607. ISBN 9789004098985. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
49. Williams, translated by Frank (2013). The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis. (Second, revised edition. ed.). Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. p. 36. ISBN 9789004228412. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
50, 54. Origen, Commentary on Matthew, Newadvent.org, §10.17.
52. Harrison, Everett F (1968), A Short Life of Christ, p. 58, In opposition to Helvidius, Jerome (Hierony- mus, hence the name Hieronymian for his view) insisted that the brethren were kinsmen, specifically first cousins, being sons of Mary’s sister, namely, that Mary who was the wife of Clopas.
55. .Martin Luther on Mary’s Perpetual Virginity.
56. Zwingli, Ulrich (1905), “Eini Predigt von der ewig reinen Magd Maria”, in Egli, Emil; Finsler, Georg; Zwingli-Verein, Georg, Huldreich Zwinglis sämtliche Werke (in German), 1, Zürich: C. A. Schwetschke & Sohn, p. 385, retrieved 2008-07-01, I firmly believe that [Mary], according to the words of the gospel as a pure Virgin brought forth for us the Son of God and in childbirth and after childbirth forever remained a pure, intact Virgin.
57. .The Works of the Rev. John Wesley, p. 112, I believe that He was made man, joining the human nature with the divine in one person; being conceived by the singular operation of the Holy Ghost, and born of the blessed Virgin Mary, who, as well after as before she brought Him forth, continued a pure and unspotted virgin.
58. Jimmy Akin, Ossuary of James – I: Burial Box of St. James Found?, Catholic Answers
59. .Witherington, Ben III, “Jesus’ Extended Family”, Bible Review,19 (3): 30–31, So James, according to this view, would be Jesus’ younger half-brother.
60. The Nelson Study Bible (NKJV), pp. 2102, 2156, James, the half brother of Jesus, traditionally called ‘the Just’ […] Jude the brother of James and the half brother of the Lord Jesus. The term “half brother” is used[by whom?] to denote parentage, not genetics. In this view, the other brothers and sisters listed in the Gospel passages would have the same relationship to Jesus. However, some Protestants reject the term “half brother” because it is too specific; the Gospel accounts refer to these relatives as brothers and sisters of Jesus, without specifying their parents, and refer to Mary only in relation to Jesus.
61. .Funk 1998, pp. 51–161.
62. For instance, in 16 of the 36 verses of the chapter Genesis 37.
63. .2 Samuel 13.
64. .2 Samuel 3:2-3.
65. S. Shearer (1953). “The ‘Bretheren of the Lord'”. In Orchard, Orchard. A Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture. § 673f. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons.
66. Rousseau, John J; Arav, Rami (1995), Jesus and His World, Fortress, ISBN 978-0-80062903-8.
67. “Jesus’ Family Tree”, Frontline, PBS

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