James (a.k.a. James the Less) ~ son of Alphaeus

Roman Catholic tradition1)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James,_brother_of_Jesus generally holds that this James is to be identified with James, son of Alphaeus, and James the Less.2)Camerlynck, Achille (1910), “St. James the Less”, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8, New York: Robert Appleton Company (retrieved from New Advent). It is agreed by most that he should not be confused with James, son of Zebedee.

Referenced in the Bible:

Matthew 10:2-4

Mark 3:16-19

Luke 6:13-16

Acts 1:13

Key Verse: 

Matthew 10:2-4

The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him. (ESV)

Mark 3:16-19

He appointed the twelve: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter); James the son of Zebedee and John the brother of James (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, that is, Sons of Thunder); Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him. (ESV)

Luke 6:13-16

And when day came, he called his disciples and chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles: Simon, whom he named Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James and John, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot, and Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.(ESV)

Acts 1:13

And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot and Judas the son of James. (ESV)


1.0 Introduction:3)http://christianity.about.com/od/newtestamentpeople/a/James-The-Less.htm (By Jack Zavada).

James the Less – Obscure Apostle, Son of Alphaeus

The Apostle James, son of Alphaeus, was also known as James the Less. He is not to be confused with James the son of Zebedee, brother of the Apostle John.

A third James appears in the New Testament. He was the brother of the Lord, a leader in the Jerusalem church, and writer of the book of James.

James of Alphaeus is named in each listing of the 12 disciples, always appearing ninth in order. The Apostle Matthew (called Levi, the tax collector before becoming a follower of Christ), is also identified in Mark 2:14 as the son of Alphaeus, yet scholars doubt he and James were brothers. Never in the Gospels are the two disciples connected.

The title “James the Less” or “the Little,” helps to distinguish him from the Apostle James, son of Zebedee, who was part of Jesus’ inner circle of three and the first disciple to be martyred. James the Less may have been younger or smaller in stature than Zebedee’s son, as the Greek word for “the less”, mikros, conveys both meanings.

Although it’s argued by scholars, some believe James the Less was the disciple who first witnessed the risen Christ in 1 Corinthians 15:7:

Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. (ESV)

Beyond this, Scripture reveals nothing more about James the Less.


Accomplishments:

James was hand-picked by Jesus Christ to be a disciple. He was present with the 11 apostles in the upper room of Jerusalem after Christ ascended to heaven. He may have been the first disciple to see the risen Savior.

Although his accomplishments remain unknown to us today, James may simply have been overshadowed by the more prominent apostles. Even still, being named among the twelve was no small achievement.


Strengths:

none observed.

Weaknesses:

Like the other disciples, James deserted the Lord during his trial and crucifixion.

Hometown:

Unknown.

Occupation:

Disciple of Jesus Christ.


Life Lessons:

While James the Less is one of the least known of the 12 apostles, we can’t overlook the fact that each of these men sacrificed everything to follow the Lord. In Luke 18:28, their spokesman Peter said, “We have left all we had to follow you!” (NIV)

They gave up family, friends, homes, jobs, and all things familiar to answer Christ’s call.

These ordinary men who did extraordinary things for God, set the example for us. They formed the foundation of the Christian church, initiating a movement that steadily spread across the face of the earth. And we are part of that movement–the body of Christ–today.

For all we know, “Little James” was an unsung hero of faith. Evidently, he did not seek recognition or fame, for he received no glory or credit for his service to Christ. Perhaps the nugget of truth we can take from the altogether obscure life of James is reflected in this Psalm:

Not to us, O Lord, not to us, but to your name give glory …
(Psalm 115:1, ESV)


2.0 James, son of Alphaeus:4)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James,_son_of_Alphaeus

James, son of Alphaeus (Ἰάκωβος, Iakōbos in Greek; Hebrew: יעקב בן חלפי‎‎ Ya’akov ben Halfay) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, appearing under this name in all three of the Synoptic Gospels‘ lists of the apostles. He is often identified with James the Less (Greek Iacobos ho mikros, Ἰακώβος ο μικρος Mark 15:40) and commonly known by that name in church tradition. He is also labelled “the minor”, “the little”, “the lesser”, or “the younger”, according to translation. He is distinct from James, son of Zebedee and in some interpretations also from James, brother of Jesus (James the Just).5).”Saint-James. Apostle, son of Alphaeus“. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. He appears only four times in the New Testament, each time in a list of the twelve apostles.6).Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18, Luke 6:12-16 and Acts 1:13.

IDENTITY

Possible identity with James the Less

James, son of Alphaeus is often identified with James the Less, who is only mentioned four times in the Bible, each time in connection with his mother. (Mark 15:40) refers to “Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses“, while (Mark 16:1) and (Matthew 27:56) refer to “Mary the mother of James”.

Since there was already another James (James, son of Zebedee) among the twelve apostles, equating James son of Alphaeus with “James the Less” made sense. (James son of Zebedee was sometimes called “James the Greater”).

Jerome identifies James, son of Alpheus with James the Less writing in his work called The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary the following:

Do you intend the comparatively unknown James the Less, who is called in Scripture the son of Mary, not however of Mary the mother of our Lord, to be an apostle, or not? If he is an apostle, he must be the son of Alphæus and a believer in Jesus, “For neither did his brethren believe in him.”

The only conclusion is that the Mary who is described as the mother of James the Less was the wife of Alphæus and sister of Mary the Lord’s mother, the one who is called by John the Evangelist “Mary of Clopas”.7)saint, Jerome. The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary Fragment 15. newadvent.org. Retrieved 3 September 2015.

Papias of Hierapolis, who lived circa 70-163 AD, in the surviving fragments of his work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord relates that Mary, wife of Alphaeus is mother of James the Less:

Mary, mother of James the Less and Joseph, wife of Alphaeus was the sister of Mary the mother of the Lord, whom John names of Cleophas, either from her father or from the family of the clan, or for some other reason.8)of Hierapolis, Papias. Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord. Fragment X. earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 10 September 2015.

Therefore, James, son of Alphaeus would be the same as James the Less.

Modern Biblical scholars are divided on whether this identification is correct. John Paul Meier finds it unlikely.9)John Paul Meier, A Marginal Jew volume 3, p. 201. “There are no grounds for identifying James of Alphaeus – as church tradition has done – with James the Less.” Amongst evangelicals, the New Bible Dictionary supports the traditional identification,10)New Bible Dictionary, 2nd Edition (IVP 1982), “James” entry (by P.H.Davids). while Don Carson11)“The Expositor’s Bible Commentary CDROM, commentary on Matthew (by Don Carson), commentary on Matthew 10:2-4 and Darrell Bock12)Luke, by Darrell Bock (Baker 1994), commentary on Luke 6:15 both regard the identification as possible, but not certain.

Possible identification with James, the brother of Jesus

Jerome apparently voicing the general opinion of Early Church, maintains the doctrine of perpetual virginity of Mary.13)Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press. He proposed that James, son of Alphaeus, was to be identified with “James, the brother of the Lord” (Gal.1:19) and that the term “brother” was to be understood as “cousin.”14)John Saward – Cradle of redeeming love: the theology of the Christmas mystery p18 2002 “St Jerome concludes that St James, son of Alphaeus, and St James, brother of the Lord, are one and the same person.169 But why is James, son of Alphaeus, called our Lord’s ‘brother’? St Jerome’s answer is as follows. In Matthew 13:55 we hear of four ‘brothers’ of our Lord: James and Joseph, Simon and Jude. Later, in the Passion narrative, St Matthew mentions a Mary who is the mother of James and Joseph (cf Mt 27:56) “, 15)The brother of Jesus: James the Just and his mission p17 Bruce Chilton, Jacob Neusner – 2001 “Given that James has been identified as the son of Alphaeus, Jerome indicates he cannot explain the connection of Mary the … Chrysostom (347-407) was first to suggest that James the brother of the Lord is the son of Clopas though …” The view of Jerome, the “Hieronymian view,” became widely accepted in the Roman Catholic Church,16).”CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. James the Less“. while Eastern Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and Protestants tend to distinguish between the two. Geike (1884) states that Hausrath, Delitzsch, and Schenkel think James the brother of Jesus was the son of Clophas-Alphaeus.17).John Cunningham Geikie The life and words of Christ Volume 1 1884 “Alphaeus, or Alpheus __, and Clopas are different ways of pronouncing in Greek the Hebrew name ___ (Chal’phai) … Hausrath, Delitzsch, and Schenkel, think James the Just was the son of Clophas-Alphaeus.”

In two small but potentially important works of Hippolytus, On the Twelve Apostles of Christ and On the Seventy Apostles of Christ, he relates the following:

And James the son of Alphaeus, when preaching in Jerusalem was stoned to death by the Jews, and was buried there beside the temple.18)of Rome, Pseudo-Hippolytus. “On the Twelve Apostles” and “On the Seventy Disciples“. newadvent.org. Retrieved 10 September 2015.

It is important to remember that James, the brother of Jesus had the same death, he was stoned to death by the Jews too. With this testimony of Hippolytus there would be no doubt that James the son of Alphaeus is the same person as James the brother of Jesus.

Although these two works of Hippolytus are often neglected because the manuscripts were lost during most of the church age and then found in Greece in the 19th century. As most scholars consider them spurious, they are often ascribed to “Pseudo-Hippolytus”. The two are included in an appendix to the works of Hippolytus in the voluminous collection of Early Church Fathers.19)Ante-Nicean Fathers, ed. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson and A. Cleaveland Coxe, vol. 5 (Peabody MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999), 254–6

According to the surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of Papias of Hierapolis Cleophas and Alphaeus are the same person, Mary wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus would be the mother of James, the brother of Jesus, and of Simon and Judas (Thaddeus), and of one Joseph.

(1) Mary the mother of the Lord; (2) Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus, who was the mother of James the bishop and apostle, and of Simon and Thaddeus, and of one Joseph; (3) Mary Salome, wife of Zebedee, mother of John the evangelist and James; (4) Mary Magdalene. These four are found in the Gospel…(Fragment X)20)of Hierapolis, Papias. Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord. Fragment X. earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 10 September 2015.

Thus, James, the brother of the Lord would be the son of Alphaeus, who is the husband of Mary the wife of Cleophas or Mary the wife of Alphaeus. Although for the Anglican theologian J.B. Lightfoot this fragment in question would be spurious.21).”The Brethren of the Lord by J.B. Lightfoot“., 22).http://www.textexcavation.com/papias.html.

Possible brother of Matthew

Alphaeus is also the name of the father of the publican Levi mentioned in Mark 2:14. The publican appears as Matthew in Matthew 9:9, which has led some to conclude that James and Matthew might have been brothers.23)John MacArthur, Jr., Daily Readings from The Life of Christ, page 50 (Moody Publishers, 2009)., 24)Warren W. Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary: The Complete New Testament, page 848 (David C. Cook, 2007). ISBN 978-0-7814-4539-9. The four times that James son of Alphaeus is mentioned directly in the Bible (each time in the list of the Apostles) the only family relationship stated is that his father is Alphaeus.25).Matthew 10:2-3, Mark 3:16-19, Luke 6:11-16 and Acts 1:13. In two lists of the Apostles, the other James and John are listed as brothers and that their father is Zebedee.26).Matthew 10:2-3, Mark 3:16-19.

GOSPEL OF MARK

Calling of James, Son of Alphaeus

Mark the Evangelist is the earliest known source in the bible to mention “James, son of Alphaeus” as one of the twelve Apostles if Markan priority is true. Mark the Evangelist mentions a “James, son of Alphaeus” only once and this is in his list of the 12 Apostles Mark 3:16-19. At the beginning of Jesus’ ministry he first calls Peter and his brother Andrew and asks them to follow him Mark 1:16-17. In the next verses it tells the story of how James the Greater and his brother John the Apostle came to follow Jesus Mark 1:19-20. After some healing by Jesus he meets Levi son of Alphaeus who was a tax collector and he then asks Levi (better known as Matthew) to follow him Mark 2:14 Matthew 9:9. Peter, Andrew, James the Greater and John the Apostle are listed as Apostles Mark 3:16-19. Levi, son of Alphaeus is listed as an Apostle under the name of Matthew, but James alone is listed as the son of Alphaeus Mark 3:16-19.

Ambiguous Jameses

Overall Mark the Evangelist lists three different Jameses. “James, son of Alphaeus”, James the Greater and James the brother of Jesus (Mark 6:3). On three separate occasions he writes about a James without clarifying which James he is referring to. There is a James at the transfiguration Mark 9:2, at the Mount of Olives Mark 13:3 and the Garden of Gethsemane Mark 14:33. Although this James is listed alongside John the Apostle a clear distinction isn’t made about which Apostle James is being referred to, even when both Apostles are meant to be in a similar location. All twelve Apostles attend the Last Supper Mark 14:33 which immediately precedes Garden of Gethsemane. There is a reference to Mary mother of James the Younger and Joseph (Mark 15:40); however, Mark the Evangelist has already told us that James the brother of Jesus has a brother called Joseph Mark 6:3.

GOSPEL OF MATTHEW

Calling of James, Son of Alphaeus

Peter, Andrew, James, son of Zebedee and his brother John were all called to follow Jesus Matthew 4:18-22. In a story that parallels the calling of Levi, son of Alphaeus,[23] Matthew is called to follow Jesus (Matthew 9:9-13). Matthew is never referred directly to as being the Son of Alphaeus in the Gospel of Matthew or any other book in the Bible,27)The Good News Bible Revised Edition 1994 but like Levi, Son of Alphaeus in Mark he is regarded as a tax collector Matthew 9:9. In the Gospel of Matthew the tax collector (Matthew) called to follow Jesus is listed as one of the twelve Apostles. James, son of Alphaeus is also listed as one of the 12 Apostles Matthew 10:3

Ambiguous Jameses

Matthew doesn’t mention any James in his Gospel that isn’t identified without association to his family. There are 3 James that are mentioned by Matthew; James, Brother of Jesus, Joseph, Simon and Judas (Matthew 13:55), James son of Zebedee and brother of John (Matthew 10:2) and James, son of Alphaeus. At the Transfiguration it is specified that the James is brother of John (Matthew 13:55) and at the Garden of Gethsemane it is specified that it is the son of Zebedee (Matthew 26:37). It is not specified by Matthew that there was a James at the Mount of Olives; he mentions only disciples Matthew 24:3. Matthew also mentions a Mary the mother of James and Joseph who was at the crucifixion. This James is not given the epithet the younger Matthew 27:56.

DEATH

James was arrested along with some other Christians and was executed by King Herod Agrippa in persecution of the church. Acts 12:1,2 However, the James in Acts 12:1,2 has a brother called John. James, son of Zebedee has a brother called John (Matthew 4:21) and we are never explicitly told that James son of Alphaeus has a brother. Robert Eisenman 28)“James brother of Jesus” Robert Eisenman and Achille Camerlynck29).”CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. James the Greater“. both suggest that the death of James in Acts 12:1-2 is James, son of Zebedee and not James son of Alphaeus. In Christian art he is depicted holding a fuller’s club (when identified with James the Less30)Hilarie Cornwell, James Cornwell, Saints, Signs, and Symbols, page 49 (Morehouse Publishing, 2009). ISBN 978-0-8192-2345-6..). Tradition maintains James the Less was crucified at Ostrakine in Lower Egypt, where he was preaching the Gospel.31)Philip Schaff, History of the Apostolic Church: with a General Introduction to Church History, page 389 (New York: Charles Scribner, 1853). Citing Nikephoros, Historia Ecclesiastica II:40.


3.0 James the Less:32)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_the_Less

James the Less is a figure of Early Christianity. He is also called “the Minor”, “the Little”, “the Lesser”, or “the Younger”, according to translation. He is not to be confused with James, son of Zebedee (“James the Great”). In most opinions he might be the same person with James, son of Alphaeus, but the sources offer no certainty. In the past, the Western church used to identify him with James, the Lord’s brother (“James the Just”) 33).”Saint-James. Apostle, son of Alphaeus”. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.

SOURCES

In the New Testament, the name “James” identifies multiple men. James the Less is named only in connection with his mother “Mary” in Mark 15:40, who is also the mother of Joses (Joseph). “Mary the mother of James” is referred to in two other places, but he is not called “James the Less” there. This “Mary” may have been Mary of Clopas (alternately Cleophas), mentioned only in John 19:25. It is unlikely to be Mary the mother of Jesus since she is not identified as Jesus’ mother but only called the mother of James the Less and Joses.

Identification as James, the son of Alphaeus

The title, “the Less”, is used to differentiate James from other people named James. Since it means that he is either the younger or shorter of two, he seems to be compared to one other James. In the lists of the twelve apostles in the synoptic Gospels, there are two apostles called James, who are differentiated there by their fathers: James, son of Zebedee, and James, son of Alphaeus. Long-standing tradition identifies James, the son of Alphaeus, as James the Less. James, son of Zebedee, is then called “James the Great”, which is not a name found anywhere in the New Testament. Some propose that Alphaeus was the same man as Cleophas or at least the husband of Mary Clopas.

In this regard, Jerome identified James, the Less with James, son of Alpheus writing in his work called The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary the following:

Do you intend the comparatively unknown James the Less, who is called in Scripture the son of Mary, not however of Mary the mother of our Lord, to be an apostle, or not? If he is an apostle, he must be the son of Alphæus and a believer in Jesus, ‘For neither did his brethren believe in him.’

“The only conclusion is that the Mary who is described as the mother of James the Less was the wife of Alphæus and sister of Mary the Lord’s mother, the one who is called by John the Evangelist ‘Mary of Clopas‘.34)Jerome. “Fragment 15”. The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary. New advent. Retrieved 3 September 2015.

Papias of Hierapolis, who lived circa 70–163 AD, in the surviving fragments of his work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord relates that Mary, wife of Alphaeus is mother of James the Less:

Mary, mother of James the Less and Joseph, wife of Alphaeus was the sister of Mary the mother of the Lord, whom John names of Cleophas, either from her father or from the family of the clan, or for some other reason.35)of Hierapolis, Papias. Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord. Fragment X. earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 10 September 2015. Therefore, James, son of Alphaeus would be the same as James the Less.

Modern Biblical scholars are divided on whether this identification is correct. John Paul Meier finds it unlikely.36)John Paul Meier, A Marginal Jew volume 3, p. 201. “There are no grounds for identifying James of Alphaeus – as church tradition has done – with James the Less.” Amongst evangelicals, the New Bible Dictionary supports the traditional identification,37)New Bible Dictionary, 2nd Edition (IVP 1982), “James” entry (by P.H.Davids). while Don Carson 38)“The Expositor’s Bible Commentary CDROM, commentary on Matthew (by Don Carson), commentary on Matthew 10:2-4 and Darrell Bock 39)Luke, by Darrell Bock (Baker 1994), commentary on Luke 6:15 both regard the identification as possible, but not certain.

Identification as James the brother of Jesus

James the Less could also be identified as being James the brother of Jesus (James the Just). Jerome also concluded that James “the brother of the Lord” is the same as James the Less. To explain this, Jerome first tells that James the Less must be identified with James, the son of Alphaeus.40).The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary Fragment 15. After that, James the Less being the same as James, the son of Alphaeus, Jerome describes in his work called De Viris Illustribus that James “the brother of the Lord” is the same as James, son of Alphaeus:

James, who is called the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just, the son of Joseph by another wife, as some think, but, as appears to me, the son of Mary sister of the mother our Lord <Mary of Cleophas> of whom John makes mention in his book.(John 19:25)41)saint, Jerome. De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) Chapter 2. newadvent.org. Retrieved 4 September 2015.

Thus, Jerome concludes that James the Less is the same as James, son of Alphaeus and that James, son of Alphaeus is the same as James the brother of Jesus concluding that James the Less, James, son of Alphaeus and James the brother of Jesus are one and the same person. In Roman Catholic tradition, James’s mother is none other than Mary Cleophas who was among the women at the foot of the Cross of Jesus, weeping. For that reason, and given the fact that the Semitic word for brother is also used for other close relatives, James son of Alpheus is often held as a cousin to Jesus. He is also thought by some to be the brother of Matthew the Apostle, since the father of both was named Alphaeus (compare Mark 2:14 and 3:18).

OTHER REFERENCES

  • James the Less: The Latter Rain Page
  • Eusebius, Historia Ecclesia
  • Who’s Who in The New Testament, Ronals Brownrigg, Oxford University Press, 1993
  • The 12, The Story of Christ’s Apostles, Edgar J. Goodspeed, Holt, Rinehart and Winston
  • The Search for the Twelve Apostles, William Steuart McBirnie, Ph. D. Tyndale Pp 183–194.

genealogy-150-150

Father – Alphaeus
Brother – Possibly Matthew


SOURCES

1.0) Source: http://christianity.about.com/od/newtestamentpeople/a/James-The-Less.htm (By Jack Zavada)

2.0) Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James,_son_of_Alphaeus

3.0) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_the_Less

4.0) Source: bibleresources.americanbible.org | Tittle: “A Guide to Key Events, Characters and Themes of the Bible”


Related: Biblical Overviews List of Key Old Testament Characters

References   [ + ]

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James,_brother_of_Jesus
2. Camerlynck, Achille (1910), “St. James the Less”, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8, New York: Robert Appleton Company (retrieved from New Advent).
3. http://christianity.about.com/od/newtestamentpeople/a/James-The-Less.htm (By Jack Zavada).
4. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James,_son_of_Alphaeus
5. .”Saint-James. Apostle, son of Alphaeus“. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
6. .Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18, Luke 6:12-16 and Acts 1:13.
7. saint, Jerome. The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary Fragment 15. newadvent.org. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
8, 20, 35. of Hierapolis, Papias. Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord. Fragment X. earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
9, 36. John Paul Meier, A Marginal Jew volume 3, p. 201. “There are no grounds for identifying James of Alphaeus – as church tradition has done – with James the Less.”
10, 37. New Bible Dictionary, 2nd Edition (IVP 1982), “James” entry (by P.H.Davids).
11, 38. “The Expositor’s Bible Commentary CDROM, commentary on Matthew (by Don Carson), commentary on Matthew 10:2-4
12, 39. Luke, by Darrell Bock (Baker 1994), commentary on Luke 6:15
13. Cross, FL, ed. (2005), “Brethren of the Lord”, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press.
14. John Saward – Cradle of redeeming love: the theology of the Christmas mystery p18 2002 “St Jerome concludes that St James, son of Alphaeus, and St James, brother of the Lord, are one and the same person.169 But why is James, son of Alphaeus, called our Lord’s ‘brother’? St Jerome’s answer is as follows. In Matthew 13:55 we hear of four ‘brothers’ of our Lord: James and Joseph, Simon and Jude. Later, in the Passion narrative, St Matthew mentions a Mary who is the mother of James and Joseph (cf Mt 27:56) “
15. The brother of Jesus: James the Just and his mission p17 Bruce Chilton, Jacob Neusner – 2001 “Given that James has been identified as the son of Alphaeus, Jerome indicates he cannot explain the connection of Mary the … Chrysostom (347-407) was first to suggest that James the brother of the Lord is the son of Clopas though …”
16. .”CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. James the Less“.
17. .John Cunningham Geikie The life and words of Christ Volume 1 1884 “Alphaeus, or Alpheus __, and Clopas are different ways of pronouncing in Greek the Hebrew name ___ (Chal’phai) … Hausrath, Delitzsch, and Schenkel, think James the Just was the son of Clophas-Alphaeus.”
18. of Rome, Pseudo-Hippolytus. “On the Twelve Apostles” and “On the Seventy Disciples“. newadvent.org. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
19. Ante-Nicean Fathers, ed. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson and A. Cleaveland Coxe, vol. 5 (Peabody MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999), 254–6
21. .”The Brethren of the Lord by J.B. Lightfoot“.
22. .http://www.textexcavation.com/papias.html.
23. John MacArthur, Jr., Daily Readings from The Life of Christ, page 50 (Moody Publishers, 2009).
24. Warren W. Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary: The Complete New Testament, page 848 (David C. Cook, 2007). ISBN 978-0-7814-4539-9.
25. .Matthew 10:2-3, Mark 3:16-19, Luke 6:11-16 and Acts 1:13.
26. .Matthew 10:2-3, Mark 3:16-19.
27. The Good News Bible Revised Edition 1994
28. “James brother of Jesus” Robert Eisenman
29. .”CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. James the Greater“.
30. Hilarie Cornwell, James Cornwell, Saints, Signs, and Symbols, page 49 (Morehouse Publishing, 2009). ISBN 978-0-8192-2345-6.
31. Philip Schaff, History of the Apostolic Church: with a General Introduction to Church History, page 389 (New York: Charles Scribner, 1853). Citing Nikephoros, Historia Ecclesiastica II:40.
32. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_the_Less
33. .”Saint-James. Apostle, son of Alphaeus”. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
34. Jerome. “Fragment 15”. The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary. New advent. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
40. .The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary Fragment 15.
41. saint, Jerome. De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) Chapter 2. newadvent.org. Retrieved 4 September 2015.

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