“JAMES THE GREAT”
The Apostle James is mentioned in all four Gospels and his martyrdom is cited in Acts 12:2.
And he sent messengers on ahead, who went into a Samaritan village to get things ready for him; but the people there did not welcome him, because he was heading for Jerusalem. When the disciples James and John saw this, they asked, “Lord, do you want us to call fire down from heaven to destroy them?” But Jesus turned and rebuked them, and they went to another village.(NIV)
After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James and John the brother of James, and led them up a high mountain by themselves. There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothes became as white as the light. Just then there appeared before them Moses and Elijah, talking with Jesus. (NIV)
It was about this time that King Herod arrested some who belonged to the church, intending to persecute them. He had James, the brother of John, put to death with the sword. (NIV)
Apostle James – First Apostle to Die for Jesus, Brother of John
The apostle James was honored with a favored position by Jesus Christ, as one of three men in his inner circle. The others were James’ brother John and Simon Peter.
When Jesus called the brothers, James and John were fishermen with their father Zebedee on the Sea of Galilee. They immediately left their father and their business to follow the young rabbi. James was probably the older of the two brothers because he is always mentioned first.
Three times James, John, and Peter were invited by Jesus to witness events no one else saw: the raising of the daughter of Jairus from the dead (Mark 5:37-47), the transfiguration (Matthew 17:1-3), and Jesus’ agony in the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:36-37).
But James was not above making mistakes. When a Samaritan village rejected Jesus, he and John wanted to call down fire from heaven upon the place. This earned them the nickname “Boanerges,” or “sons of thunder.” The mother of James and John also overstepped her bounds, asking Jesus to grant her sons special positions in his kingdom.
James’ zeal for Jesus resulted in his being the first of the 12 apostles to be martyred. He was killed with the sword on order of King Herod Agrippa I of Judea, about 44 A.D., in a general persecution of the early church.
Two other men named James appear in the New Testament: James, the son of Alphaeus, another apostle; and James, the brother of the Lord, a leader in the Jerusalem church and author of the book of James.
James followed Jesus as one of the 12 disciples. He proclaimed the gospel after Jesus’ resurrection and was martyred for his faith.
James was a loyal disciple of Jesus. He apparently had outstanding personal qualities that are not detailed in Scripture, because his character made him one of Jesus’ favorites.
With his brother John, James could be rash and unthinking. He did not always apply the gospel to earthly matters.
Following Jesus Christ can lead to hardship and persecution, but the reward is eternal life with him in heaven.
Fisherman, disciple of Jesus Christ.
2.0 James, son of Zebedee יַעֲקֹב or ἸάκωβοςFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James,_son_of_Zebedee
(Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב Yaʿqob, Greek: Ἰάκωβος; died 44 AD) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred. He was a son of Zebedee and Salome, and brother of John the Apostle. He is also called James the Greater or James the Great to distinguish him from James, son of Alphaeus and James the brother of Jesus (James the Just). James the son of Zebedee is the patron saint of Spain, and as such is often identified as Santiago.
The son of Zebedee and Salome, James is styled “the Greater” to distinguish him from the Apostle James “the Less”, who was probably shorter of stature. He was the brother of John, the beloved disciple, and probably the elder of the two.“Catholic Encyclopedia: St. James the Greater”.
His parents seem to have been people of means. Zebedee, his father, was a fisherman of the Sea of Galilee, who probably lived in or near Bethsaida, present Galilee, Israel, perhaps in Capernaum, and had some boatmen or hired men. Salome, his mother, was one of the pious women who afterwards followed Christ and “ministered unto him of their substance”, and his brother John was personally known to the high-priest, and must have had wherewithal to provide for the Mother of Jesus.“Catholic Encyclopedia: St. James the Greater”.
It is probable that his brother had not received the technical training of the rabbinical schools; in this sense they were unlearned and without any official position among the Jews. But, according to the social rank of their parents, they must have been men of ordinary education, in the common walks of Jewish life. James is described as one of the first disciples to join Jesus.
The Synoptic Gospels state that James and John were with their father by the seashore when Jesus called them to follow him.[Matt. 4:21-22] [Mk. 1:19-20] James was one of only three apostles whom Jesus selected to bear witness to his Transfiguration..Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:2-8, Luke 9:28-36. James and John.Mark 10:35-45. (or, in another tradition, their mother.Matthew 20:20-28..) asked Jesus to grant them seats on his right and left in his glory. Jesus rebuked them, and the other ten apostles were annoyed with them. James and his brother wanted to call down fire on a Samaritan town, but were rebuked by Jesus.[Lk 9:51-6]
The Acts of the Apostles records that “Herod the king” (traditionally identified with Herod Agrippa) had James executed by sword. He is the only apostle whose martyrdom is recorded in the New Testament.
He is, thus, traditionally believed to be the first of the twelve apostles martyred for his faith.[Acts 12:1-2] Nixon suggests that this may have been caused by James’ fiery temper,.R. E. Nixon, “Boanerges”, in J. D. Douglas (ed.), The New Bible Dictionary (London: The Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1963), 1354. for which he and his brother earned the nickname Boanerges or “Sons of Thunder”.[Mark 3:17] F. F. Bruce contrasts this story to that of the Liberation of Saint Peter, and notes that “James should die while Peter should escape” is a “mystery of divine providence”..F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Book of the Acts (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 251.
The New Testament scholar Dennis MacDonald identifies Castor and Pollux as basis characters for the appearance of James and John in the narrative by Mark the Evangelist..Dennis MacDonald, The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark, Yale University Press, 2000, pp 24-32. Macdonald cites the origin of this identification to 1913 when J. Rendel Harris published his work Boanerges,.J. Rendel Harris, Boanerges, Cambridge University Press, 1913, pp 1-4. a Greek term for Thunder, the epithet of Zeus father of Pollux in what MacDonald calls a form of early Christian Dioscurism.
The English name “James” comes from Italian “Giacomo”, a variant of “Giacobo” derived from Iacobus (Jacob) in Latin, itself from the Greek Ἰάκωβος “Iacobos”. In French, Jacob is translated “Jacques”. In eastern Spain, Jacobus became “Jacome” or “Jaime”; in Catalonia, it became “Jaume”, in western Iberia it became “Iago”, from Hebrew יַעֲקֹב, which when prefixed with “Sant” became “Santiago” in Portugal and Galicia; “Tiago” is also spelled “Diego” in Spanish and “Diogo” in Portuguese, which is also the Spanish name of Saint Didacus of Alcalá.
Alternatively, Santiago is the local Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin Sanctu Iacobu, “Saint James“.New York, E. P. Dutton, 1957, OCLC 28087235; reprinted by the Univ. of California Press in 1965 (OCLC 477436336) and published in Spanish translation in 1958 with the somewhat different title of El … Continue reading
The site of martyrdom is located within the Armenian Apostolic Cathedral of St. James in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem. The Chapel of St. James the Great, located to the left of the sanctuary, is the traditional place where he was martyred when King Agrippas ordered him to be beheaded (Acts 12:1-2). His head is buried under the altar, marked by a piece of red marble and surrounded by six votive lamps..http://www.christusrex.org/www1/ofm/sbf/escurs/Ger/07santuarioGiacomoBig.jpg.
Mission in Iberia and burial at Compostela
The 12th-century Historia Compostelana commissioned by bishop Diego Gelmírez provides a summary of the legend of St. James as it was believed at Compostela. Two propositions are central to it: first, that St. James preached the gospel in Iberia as well as in the Holy Land; second, that after his martyrdom at the hands of Herod Agrippa his disciples carried his body by sea to Iberia, where they landed at Padrón on the coast of Galicia, and took it inland for burial at Santiago de Compostela.
The translation of his relics from Judea to Galicia in the northwest of Iberia was effected, in legend, by a series of miraculous happenings: decapitated in Jerusalem with a sword by Herod Agrippa himself, his body was taken up by angels, and sailed in a rudderless, unattended boat to Iria Flavia in Iberia, where a massive rock closed around his relics, which were later removed to Compostela.
According to ancient local tradition, on 2 January AD 40, the Virgin Mary appeared to James on the bank of the Ebro River at Caesaraugusta, while he was preaching the Gospel in Iberia. She appeared upon a pillar, Nuestra Señora del Pilar, and that pillar is conserved and venerated within the present Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, in Zaragoza, Spain.
Following that apparition, St. James returned to Judea, where he was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I in the year 44.Chadwick, Henry (1976), Priscillian of Avila, Oxford University Press, Fletcher, Richard A. (1984), Saint James’s Catapult: The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela, Oxford University Press
The tradition at Compostela placed the discovery of the relics of the saint in the time of king Alfonso II (791-842) and of bishop Theodemir of Iria. These traditions were the basis for the pilgrimage route that began to be established in the 9th century, and the shrine dedicated to James at Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia in Spain, became the most famous pilgrimage site in the Christian world. The Way of St. James is a tree of routes that cross Western Europe and arrive at Santiago through Northern Spain. Eventually James became the patron saint of Spain.
James suffered martyrdom[Acts 12:1-2] in AD 44. According to the tradition of the early Church, he had not yet left Jerusalem at this time..Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, VI; Apollonius, quoted by Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History V.xviii). An argument supporting this assertion is based on St Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, written after AD 44, in which he expressed his intention to avoid “building on someone else’s foundation”,[Rom. 15:20] by visiting Spain[Rom. 15:23-24], suggesting that he knew of no previous evangelisation in Hispania.
The tradition was not unanimously admitted afterwards, while numerous modern scholars, following Louis Duchesne and T. E. Kendrick,“Saint James in Spain”, London, 1960 reject it. (According to Kendrick, even if one admits the existence of miracles, James’ presence in Spain is impossible.) The Bollandists however defended it (their Acta Sanctorum, July, VI and VII, gives further sources).
The suggestion began to be made from the 9th century that, as well as evangelizing in Iberia, his body may have been brought to Compostela. No earlier tradition places the burial of St. James in Hispania. A rival tradition places the relics of the apostle in the church of St. Saturnin at Toulouse; if any physical relics were ever involved, they might plausibly have been divided between the two.
The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) registered several “difficulties” or bases for doubts of this tradition, beyond the late appearance of the legend:
Although the tradition that James founded an apostolic see in Iberia was current in the year 700, no certain mention of such tradition is to be found in the genuine writings of early writers nor in the early councils; the first certain mention we find in the ninth century, in Notker, a monk of St. Gall (Martyrologia, 25 July), Walafrid Strabo (Poema de XII Apostoli), and others.
Medieval “Santiago Matamoros” legend
An even later tradition states that he miraculously appeared to fight for the Christian army during the legendary battle of Clavijo, and was henceforth called Santiago Matamoros (Saint James the Moor-slayer). ¡Santiago, y cierra, España! (“St. James and strike for Spain”) was the traditional battle cry of medieval Spanish (Christian) armies. Cervantes has Don Quixote explaining that “the great knight of the russet cross was given by God to Spain as patron and protector”.Don Quixote, 2nd section, chapter 58v
A similar miracle is related about San Millán. The possibility that a cult of James was instituted to supplant the Galician cult of Priscillian (executed in 385) who was widely venerated across the north of Iberia as a martyr at the hands of the bishops rather than as a heretic should not be overlooked. This was cautiously raised by Henry Chadwick in his book on Priscillian;Chadwick, Henry (1976), Priscillian of Avila, Oxford University Press it is not the traditional Roman Catholic view. The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1908, however, is quite cautious about the origins of the cult (see above at “Controversy”).
James’ emblem was the scallop shell (or “cockle shell”), and pilgrims to his shrine often wore that symbol on their hats or clothes. The French for a scallop is coquille St. Jacques, which means “cockle (or mollusk) of St. James”. The German word for a scallop is Jakobsmuschel, which means “mussel (or clam) of St. James”; the Dutch word is Jacobsschelp, meaning “shell of St. James”
James had a special place in the Central African Kingdom of Kongo because of his association with the founding of Christianity in the country in the late 15th century. Portuguese sailors and diplomats brought the saint to Kongo when they first reached the country in 1483. When King Afonso I of Kongo whose Kongo name was Mvemba a Nzinga, the second Christian king, was facing a rival, his brother Mpanzu a Kitima, in battle, he reported that a vision of Saint James and the Heavenly Host appeared in the sky, frightened Mpanzu a Kitima’s soldiers, and gave Afonso the victory. As a result, he declared that Saint James’ feast day (25 July) be celebrated as a national holiday.
Over the years, Saint James day became the central holiday of Kongo. Taxes were collected on that day, and men eligible for military duty were required to appear armed. There were usually regional celebrations as well as one at the capital. In some cases, Kongolese slaves carried the celebration to the New World, and there are still celebrations of Saint James Day in Haiti and Puerto Rico.
3.0 Why did Jesus refer to James and John as the sons of thunder?http://www.gotquestions.org/sons-of-thunder.html
In Mark 3, Jesus calls twelve men to be His apostles. Among them are “James son of Zebedee and his brother John (to them he gave the name Boanerges, which means Sons of Thunder)” (Mark 3:17). This is the only place in Scripture that mentions the designation of the sons of Zebedee as the Sons of Thunder, and there is no stated explanation as to why Jesus named them this.
However, Jesus has a purpose for everything He does, so He must have had a good reason for dubbing James and John as “Sons of Thunder.” “Jesus . . . knew all men. He did not need man’s testimony about man, for he knew what was in a man” (John 2:24-25). In other words, Jesus knew the brothers’ nature when He first met them, and He chose “Boanerges” as a fitting nickname.
In one vivid incident, we see that James and John possessed some truly thunder-like qualities. Jesus and His disciples were traveling through Samaria on their way to Jerusalem when they ran into trouble. Jesus attempted to find accommodations for the night in one place but was met with opposition from the villagers, simply because His destination was Jerusalem—a result of Jew-Samaritan prejudice.
“When the disciples James and John saw this, they asked, ‘Lord, do you want us to call fire down from heaven to destroy them?’” (Luke 9:54). Jesus rebuked the brothers, and they all went to another village. James and John’s response to the Samaritans reveals a fervency, impetuosity, and anger that could properly be called “thunderous”—and we can be sure that there were other times when James and John lived up to their nickname.
James and John were two of Jesus’ closest friends, being two of the “inner three” disciples (see Matthew 17:1). As the church age began, James was the first apostle to be killed (Acts 12:2), while John was the last to die, although of old age. John’s epistles, written late in his life, hint that he still possessed a fervency of spirit, especially in his denunciations of apostates and deceivers (1 John 2:22; 2 John 7; 3 John 10).
However, it is a fervency tempered by love. In fact, in 1 John the word “love” and its relatives occur over 40 times. When he first met Jesus, John was one of the “Boanerges.” But after walking with Jesus for a lifetime, the “Son of Thunder” earned a new nickname: the “Apostle of Love.”
4.0 Fox book of martyrshttp://www.biblestudytools.com/history/foxs-book-of-martyrs/james-the-great.html
James the Great
The next martyr we meet with, according to St. Luke, in the History of the Apostles’ Acts, was James the son of Zebedee, the elder brother of John, and a relative of our Lord; for his mother Salome was cousin-german to the Virgin Mary.
It was not until ten years after the death of Stephen that the second martyrdom took place; for no sooner had Herod Agrippa been appointed governor of Judea, than, with a view to ingratiate himself with them, he raised a sharp persecution against the Christians, and determined to make an effectual blow, by striking at their leaders.
The account given us by an eminent primitive writer, Clemens Alexandrinus, ought not to be overlooked; that, as James was led to the place of martyrdom, his accuser was brought to repent of his conduct by the apostle’s extraordinary courage and undauntedness, and fell down at his feet to request his pardon, professing himself a Christian, and resolving that James should not receive the crown of martyrdom alone.
Hence they were both beheaded at the same time. Thus did the first apostolic martyr cheerfully and resolutely receive that cup, which he had told our Savior he was ready to drink. Timon and Parmenas suffered martyrdom about the same time; the one at Philippi, and the other in Macedonia. These events took place A.D. 44.
5.0 International Standard Bible EncyclopediaC. M. Kerr http://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/james.html
A) THE SON OF ZEBEDEE:
I. In the New Testament.
1. Family Relations, etc.:
To the Synoptists alone are we indebted for any account of this James. He was the son of Zebedee and the brother of John (Matthew 4:21; Mark 1:19; Luke 5:10).
As the Synoptists generally place the name of James before that of John, and allude to the latter as “the brother of James,” it is inferred that James was the elder of the two brothers. His mother’s name was probably Salome, the sister of the mother of Jesus (compare Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40; John 19:25), but this is disputed by some (compare BRETHREN OF THE LORD).
James was a fisherman by trade, and worked along with his father and brother (Matthew 4:21). According to Lk, these were partners with Simon (5:10), and this is also implied in Mr (1:19). As they owned several boats and employed hired servants (Luke 5:11; Mark 1:20), the establishment they possessed must have been considerable.
2. First Call:
The call to James to follow Christ (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Luke 5:1-11) was given by Jesus as He was walking by the sea of Galilee (Matthew 4:18).
There He saw “James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. And they straightway left the boat and their father, and followed him” (Matthew 4:21,22).
The account of Luke varies in part from those of Matthew and Mark, and contains the additional detail of the miraculous draught of fishes, at which James and John also were amazed.
This version of Luke is regarded by some as an amalgamation of the earlier accounts with John 21:1-8.
3. Probation and Ordination:
As the above incident took place after the imprisonment of John the Baptist, when Jesus had departed into Galilee (Matthew 4:12; Mark 1:14), and as there is no mention of James among those who received the preliminary call recorded by John (compare John 1:35-51; John 3:24, and compare ANDREW), it is probable that while Peter and Andrew made the pilgrimage to Bethany, James and the other partners remained in Galilee to carry on the business of their trade.
Yet, on the return of Peter and Andrew, the inquiries of James must have been eager concerning what they had seen and heard. His mind and imagination became filled with their glowing accounts of the newly found “Lamb of God” (John 1:36) and of the preaching of John the Baptist, until he inwardly dedicated his life to Jesus and only awaited an opportunity to declare his allegiance openly.
By this is the apparently abrupt nature of the call, as recorded by the Synoptists, to be explained. After a period of companionship and probationership with his Master, when he is mentioned as being present at the healing of Simon’s wife’s mother at Capernaum (Mark 1:29-31), he was ordained one of the Twelve Apostles (Matthew 10:2; Mark 3:17; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13).
From this time onward he occupied a prominent place among the apostles, and, along with Peter and John, became the special confidant of Jesus. These three alone of the apostles were present at the raising of Jairus’ daughter (Mark 5:37; Luke 8:51), at the Transfiguration (Mr 17:1-8; Mr 9:2-8; Lu 9:28-36), and at the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:32-42).
Shortly after the Transfiguration, when Jesus, having “steadfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem” (Luke 9:51), was passing through Samaria, the ire of James and John was kindled by the ill reception accorded to Him by the populace (Luke 9:53).
They therefore asked of Jesus, “Lord, wilt thou that we bid fire to come down from heaven, and consume them?” (Luke 9:54). “But he turned, and rebuked them” (Luke 9:55). It was probably this hotheaded impetuosity and fanaticism that won for them the surname “Boanerges, which is, Sons of thunder,” bestowed on them when they were ordained to the Twelve (Mark 3:17).
Yet upon this last occasion, there was some excuse for their action. The impression left by the Transfiguration was still deep upon them, and they felt strongly that their Lord, whom they had lately beheld “in his glory” with “countenance altered” and “glistering raiment,” should be subjected to such indignities by the Samaritans.
Upon the occasion of Jesus’ last journey to Jerusalem (Mark 10:32), the two brothers gave expression to this presumptuous impetuosity in a more selfish manner (Mark 10:35-45). Presuming on their intimacy with Jesus, they made the request of him, “Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and one on thy left hand, in thy glory” (Mark 10:37). In the account of Matthew (20:20-28), the words are put in the mouth of their mother.
The request drew forth the rebuke of Jesus (Mark 10:38), and moved the ten with indignation (Mark 10:40); but by the words of their Lord peace was again restored (Mark 10:42-45). After the arrival of Jesus in Jerusalem, when He “sat on the mount of Olives over against the temple,” James was one of the four who put the question to Him concerning the last things (Mark 13:3,1).
He was also present when the risen Jesus appeared for the 3rd time to the disciples and the miraculous draught of fishes was made at the sea of Tiberias (John 21:1-14).
James was the first martyr among the apostles, being slain by King Herod Agrippa I about 44 AD, shortly before Herod’s own death. The vehemence and fanaticism which were characteristic of James had made him to be feared and hated among the Jewish enemies of the Christians, and therefore when “Herod the king put forth his hands to afflict certain of the church …. he killed James the brother of John with the sword” (Acts 12:1,2). Thus did James fulfill the prophecy of our Lord that he too should drink of the cup of his Master (Mark 10:39).
II. In Apocryphal Literature.
According to the “Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles” (compare Budge, Contendings of the Apostles, II, 49), “Zebedee was of the house of Levi, and his wife of the house of Judah. Now, because the father of James loved him greatly he counted him among the family of his father Levi, and similarly because the mother of John loved him greatly, she counted him among the family of her father Judah.
And they were surnamed `Children of Thunder,’ for they were of both the priestly house and of the royal house.”
The Ac of John, a heretical work of the 2nd century, referred to by Clement of Alexandria in his Hypotyposis and also by Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica, III, 25), gives an account of the call of James and his presence at the Transfiguration, similar in part to that of the Gospels, but giving fantastic details concerning the supernatural nature of Christ’s body, and how its appearances brought confusion to James and other disciples (compare Itennecke, Handbuch zu den neutestamentlichen Apokryphen, 423-59).
The Ac of James in India (compare Budge, II, 295-303) tells of the missionary journey of James and Peter to India, of the appearance of Christ to them in the form of a beautiful young man, of their healing a blind man, and of their imprisonment, miraculous release, and their conversion of the people. According to the Martyrdom of James (Budge, II, 304-8), James preached to the 12 tribes scattered abroad, and persuaded them to give their first-fruits to the church instead of to Herod.
The accounts of his trial and death are similar to that in Acts 12:1-2.
(1) James is the patron saint of Spain.
The legend of his preaching there, of his death in Judea, of the transportation of his body under the guidance of angels to Iria and of the part that his miraculous appearances played in the history of Spain, is given in Mrs. Jameson’s Sacred and Legendary Art, I, 230-41.
(2) James the son of Alpheus (ho tou Alphaiou; for etymology, etc., of James, see above):
One of the Twelve Apostles (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13). By Matthew and Mark he is coupled with Thaddaeus, and by Luke and Ac with Simon Zelotes. As Matthew or Levi is also called the son of Alpheus (compare Matthew 9:9; Mark 2:14), it is possible that he and James were brothers. According to the Genealogies of the Apostles (compare Budge, Contendings of the Apostles, II, 50), James was of the house of Gad.
The Martyrdom of James, the son of Alpheus (compare Budge, ib, 264-66) records that James was stoned by the Jews for preaching Christ, and was “buried by the Sanctuary In Jerusalem.”
This James is generally identified with James the Little or the Less, the brother of Joses and son of Mary (Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40). In John 19:25 this Mary is called the wife of Cleophas (the King James Version) or Clopas (Revised Version), who is thus in turn identified with Alpheus.
There is evidence in apocryphal literature of a Simon, a son of Clopas, who was also one of the disciples (compare NATHANAEL). If this be the same as Simon Zelotes, it would explain why he and James (i.e. as being brothers) were coupled together in the apostolic lists of Luke and Acts. Some have applied the phrase “his mother’s sister” in John 19:25 to Mary the wife of Clopas, instead of to a separate person, and have thus attempted to identify James the son of Alpheus with James the brother of our Lord. For a further discussion of the problem, see BRETHREN OF THE LORD.
(3) James, “the Lord’s brother” (ho adelphos tou Kuriou):
He Less, the brother of Joses and son of Mary (Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40). In John 19:25 this Mary is called the wife of Cleophas (the King James Version) or Clopas (Revised Version), who is thus in turn identified with Alpheus. There is evidence in apocryphal literature of a Simon, a son of Clopas, who was also one of the disciples (compare NATHANAEL). If this be the same as Simon Zelotes, it would explain why he and James (i.e. as being brothers) were coupled together in the apostolic lists of Luke and Acts. Some have applied the phrase “his mother’s sister” in John 19:25 to Mary the wife of Clopas, instead of to a separate person, and have thus attempted to identify James the son of Alpheus with James the brother of our Lord. For a further discussion of the problem, see BRETHREN OF THE LORD.
Father – Zebedee
Mother – Salome
Brother – John
1.0) Source: http://christianity.about.com/od/newtestamentpeople/a/JZ-Apostle-James-Of-Zebedee.htm (By Jack Zavada).
2.0) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James,_son_of_Zebedee
3.0) Source: http://www.gotquestions.org/sons-of-thunder.html
4.0) Source: http://www.biblestudytools.com/history/foxs-book-of-martyrs/james-the-great.html
5.0) Source: http://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/james.html
6.0) Source: bibleresources.americanbible.org | Tittle: “A Guide to Key Events, Characters and Themes of the Bible”
|↑1||http://christianity.about.com/od/newtestamentpeople/a/JZ-Apostle-James-Of-Zebedee.htm (By Jack Zavada).|
|↑2||From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James,_son_of_Zebedee|
|↑3, ↑4||“Catholic Encyclopedia: St. James the Greater”.|
|↑5||.Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:2-8, Luke 9:28-36.|
|↑8||.R. E. Nixon, “Boanerges”, in J. D. Douglas (ed.), The New Bible Dictionary (London: The Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1963), 1354.|
|↑9||.F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Book of the Acts (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 251.|
|↑10||.Dennis MacDonald, The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark, Yale University Press, 2000, pp 24-32.|
|↑11||.J. Rendel Harris, Boanerges, Cambridge University Press, 1913, pp 1-4.|
|↑12||New York, E. P. Dutton, 1957, OCLC 28087235; reprinted by the Univ. of California Press in 1965 (OCLC 477436336) and published in Spanish translation in 1958 with the somewhat different title of El camino de Santiago: las peregrinaciones al sepulcro del Apóstol, trans. Amando Lázaro Ros, Madrid, Aguilar, 1958, OCLC 432856567. Both the English original and the translation have been republished.|
|↑14, ↑19||Chadwick, Henry (1976), Priscillian of Avila, Oxford University Press|
|↑15||Fletcher, Richard A. (1984), Saint James’s Catapult: The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela, Oxford University Press|
|↑16||.Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, VI; Apollonius, quoted by Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History V.xviii).|
|↑17||“Saint James in Spain”, London, 1960|
|↑18||Don Quixote, 2nd section, chapter 58v|
|↑22||C. M. Kerr http://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/james.html|