Matthew 26:14, 16, 25, 47-49
Mark 14:10, 43-45
Luke 22:1-4, 47-48
Acts 1:16-18, 25
Then one of the Twelve-the one called Judas Iscariot-went to the chief priests and asked, “What are you willing to give me if I hand him over to you?” So they counted out for him thirty silver coins.(NIV)
Jesus answered, “It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish.” Then, dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, son of Simon. As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him. (NIV)
Just as he was speaking, Judas, one of the Twelve, appeared. With him was a crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent from the chief priests, the teachers of the law, and the elders. (NIV)
He (Judas) approached Jesus to kiss him, but Jesus asked him, “Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?” (NIV)
When Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders…So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself. (NIV)
One of Jesus’ original 12 disciples, Judas Iscariot traveled with Jesus and studied under him for three years. He apparently went with the other 11 when Jesus sent them to preach the gospel, cast out demons and heal the sick.
Judas felt remorse after he betrayed Jesus. He returned the 30 pieces of silver the chief priests and elders had given him. (Matthew 27:3, NIV)
Judas was a thief. He was in charge of the group’s money bag and sometimes stole from it. He was disloyal. Even though the other apostles deserted Jesus and Peter denied him, Judas went so far as to lead the temple guard to Jesus at Gethsemane, and then identified Jesus by kissing him.
Some would say Judas Iscariot made the greatest error in history.
An outward show of loyalty to Jesus is meaningless unless we also follow Christ in our heart. Satan and the world will try to get us to betray Jesus, so we must ask the Holy Spirit for help in resisting them.
Although Judas attempted to undo the harm he had done, he failed to seek the Lord’s forgiveness. Thinking it was too late for him, Judas ended his life in suicide.
As long as we are alive and have breath, it’s never too late to come to God for forgiveness and cleansing from sin. Sadly, Judas, who had been given the opportunity to walk in close fellowship with Jesus, completely missed the most important message of Christ’s ministry.
It’s natural for people to have strong or mixed feelings about Judas. Some feel a sense of hatred toward him for his act of betrayal, others feel pity, and some throughout history have considered him a hero.
No matter how you react to him, here are a few biblical facts about Judas Iscariot to keep in mind:
He made a conscience choice to betray Jesus
He was a thief with greed in his heart
Jesus knew Judas’ heart was set on evil and that he would not repent
Judas’ act of betrayal was part of God’s sovereign plan
Believers can benefit from thinking about Judas Iscariot’s life and considering their own commitment to the Lord. Are we true followers of Christ or secret pretenders? And if we fail, do we give up all hope, or do we accept his forgiveness and seek restoration?
Kerioth. The Hebrew word Ishkeriyyoth (for Iscariot) means “man of the village of Keriyyoth.” Kerioth was about 15 miles south of Hebron, in Israel.
Disciple of Jesus Christ. Judas was the money keeper for the group.
2.0 Smith’s Bible Dictionary – Judas Iscariot2)http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/smiths-bible-dictionary/judas-iscariot.html
(Judas of Kerioth ).
He is sometimes called “the son of Simon,” ( John 6:71 ; John 13:2 John 13:26 ) but more commonly ISCARIOTES. ( Matthew 10:4 ; Mark 3:19 ; Luke 6:16 ) etc.
The name Iscariot has received many interpretations more of less conjectural.
The most probable is from Ish Kerioth , i.e. “man of Kerioth,” a town in the tribe of Judah. ( Joshua 15:25 )
Of the life of Judas before the appearance of his name in the lists of the apostles we know absolutely nothing.
What that appearance implies, however, is that he had previously declared himself a disciple. He was drawn, as the others were, by the preaching of the Baptist, or his own Messianic hopes, or the “gracious words” of the new Teacher, to leave his former life, and to obey the call of the Prophet of Nazareth.
The choice was not made, we must remember, without a provision of its issue. ( John 6:64 )
The germs of the evil, in all likelihood, unfolded themselves gradually.
The rules to which the twelve were subject in their first journey, ( Matthew 10:9 Matthew 10:10 ) sheltered him from the temptation that would have been most dangerous to him.
The new form of life, of which we find the first traces in ( Luke 8:3 ) brought that temptation with it. A
s soon as the twelve were recognized as a body, travelling hither and thither with their Master, receiving money and other offerings, and redistributing what they received to the poor, it became necessary that some one should act as the steward and almoner of the small society, and this fell to Judas. ( John 12:6 ; 13:29 )
The Galilean or Judean peasant found himself entrusted with larger sums of money than before, and with this there came covetousness, unfaithfulness, embezzlement.
Several times he showed his tendency to avarice and selfishness.
This, even under the best of influences, grew worse and worse, till he betrayed his Master for thirty pieces of silver.
Why was such a man chosen to be one of the twelve?
(1) There was needed among the disciples, as in the Church now, a man of just such talents as Judas possessed, –the talent for managing business affairs.
(2) Though he probably followed Christ at first from mixed motives, as did the other disciples, he had the opportunity of becoming a good and useful man.
(3) It doubtless was included in God’s plans that there should be thus a standing argument for the truth and honesty of the gospel; for if any wrong or trickery had been concealed, it would have been revealed by the traitor in self-defence.
(4) Perhaps to teach the Church that God can bless and the gospel can succeed even though some bad men may creep into the fold.
What was Judas motive in betraying Christ?
(1) Anger at the public rebuke given him by Christ at the supper in the house of Simon the leper. ( Matthew 26:6-14 )
(2) Avarice, covetousness, the thirty pieces of silver. ( John 12:6 )
(3) The reaction of feeling in a bad soul against the Holy One whose words and character were a continual rebuke, and who knew the traitors heart.
(4) A much larger covetousness, –an ambition to be the treasurer, not merely of a few poor disciples, but of a great and splendid temporal kingdom of the Messiah. He would hasten on the coming kingdom by compelling Jesus to defend himself.
(5) Perhaps disappointment because Christ insisted on foretelling his death instead of receiving his kingdom. He began to fear that there was to be no kingdom, after all.
(6) Perhaps, also, Judas “abandoned what seemed to him a failing cause, and hoped by his treachery to gain a position of honor and influence in the Pharisaic party.”
The end of Judas.
(1) Judas, when he saw the results of his betrayal, “repented himself.” ( Matthew 27:3-10 ) He saw his sin in a new light, and “his conscience bounded into fury.”
(2) He made ineffectual struggles to escape, by attempting to return the reward to the Pharisees, and when they would not receive it, he cast it down at their feet and left it. ( Matthew 27:5 ) But,
(a) restitution of the silver did not undo the wrong;
(b) it was restored in a wrong spirit, –a desire for relief rather than hatred of sin;
(c) he confessed to the wrong party, or rather to those who should have been secondary, and who could not grand forgiveness;
(d) “compunction is not conversion.”
(3) The money was used to buy a burial-field for poor strangers. ( Matthew 27:6-10 )
(4) Judas himself, in his despair, went out and hanged himself, ( Matthew 27:5 ) at Aceldama, on the southern slope of the valley of Hinnom, near Jerusalem, and in the act he fell down a precipice and was dashed into pieces. ( Acts 1:18 ) “And he went to his own place.” ( Acts 1:25 ) “A guilty conscience must find neither hell or pardon.”
(5) Judas repentance may be compared to that of Esau. ( Genesis 27:32-38 ; Hebrews 12:16 Hebrews 12:17 ) It is contrasted with that of Peter.
Judas proved his repentance to be false by immediately committing another sin, suicide. Peter proved his to be true by serving the Lord faithfully ever after.
3.0 International Standard Bible Encyclopedia – Judas Iscariot)3)C. M. Kerr http://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/judas-iscariot.html
is-kar’-i-ot (Ioudas Iskariotes, i.e. ‘ish qeriyoth, “Judas, man of Kerioth”):
One of the twelve apostles and the betrayer of Jesus; for etymology, etc., see JUDAS.
Judas was, as his second name indicates, a native of Kerioth or Karioth. The exact locality of Kerioth (compare Joshua 15:25) is doubtful, but it lay probably to the South of Judea, being identified with the ruins of el Karjetein (compare A. Plummer, article “Judas Iscariot” in HDB).
1. Name and Early History:
He was the son of Simon (John 13:2) or Simon Iscariot (John 6:71; 13:26), the meaning of Iscariot explaining why it was applied to his father also. The first Scriptural reference to Judas is his election to the apostleship (compare Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:19; Luke 6:16). He may have been present at the preaching of John the Baptist at Bethany beyond Jordan (compare John 1:28), but more probably he first met Jesus during the return of the latter through Judea with His followers (compare John 3:22). According to the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles (see SIMON THE CANAANITE), Judas was among those who received the call at the Sea of Tiberias (compare Matthew 4:18-22).
2. Before the Betrayal:
For any definite allusion to Judas during the interval lying between his call and the events immediately preceding the betrayal, we are indebted to John alone. These allusions are made with the manifest purpose of showing forth the nefarious character of Judas from the beginning; and in their sequence there is a gradual development and growing clearness in the manner in which Jesus makes prophecy regarding his future betrayer.
Thus, after the discourse on the Bread of Life in the synagogue of Capernaum (John 6:26-59), when many of the disciples deserted Jesus (John 6:66) and Peter protested the allegiance of the apostles (John 6:69), Jesus answered, “Did not I choose you the twelve, and one of you is a devil” (John 6:70).
Then follows John’s commentary, “Now he spake of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot, for he it was that should betray him, being one of the twelve” (John 6:71), implying that Judas was already known to Jesus as being in spirit one of those who “went back, arid walked no more with him” (John 6:66).
But the situation, however disquieting it must have been to the ambitious designs which probably actuated Judas in his acceptance of the apostleship (compare below), was not sufficiently critical to call for immediate desertion on his part.
Instead, he lulled his fears of exposure by the fact that he was not mentioned by name, and continued ostensibly one of the faithful.
Personal motives of a sordid nature had also influence in causing him to remain.
Appointed keeper of the purse, he disregarded the warnings of Jesus concerning greed and hypocrisy (compare Matthew 6:20; Luke 12:1-3) and appropriated the funds to his own use. As a cloak to his avarice, he pretended to be zealous in their administration, and therefore, at the anointing of Jesus’ feet by Mary, he asked “Why was not this ointment sold for 300 shillings, and given to the poor? Now this he said, not because he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and having the bag took away what was put therein” (John 12:5,6; compare also Matthew 26:7-13; Mark 14:3-8).
3. The Betrayal:
Yet, although by this craftiness Judas concealed for a time his true nature from the rest of the disciples, and fomented any discontent that might arise among them (compare Mark 14:4), he now felt that his present source of income could not long remain secure.
The pregnant words of his Master regarding the day of his burial (compare Matthew 26:12; Mark 14:8; John 12:7) revealed to His betrayer that Jesus already knew well the evil powers that were at work against Him; and it is significant that, according to Matthew and Mark, who alone of the synoptists mention the anointing, Judas departed immediately afterward and made his compact with the chief priests (compare Matthew 26:14,15; Mark 14:10,11; compare also Luke 22:3-6).
But his absence was only temporary.
He was present at the washing of the disciples’ feet, there to be differentiated once more by Jesus from the rest of the Twelve (compare “Ye are clean, but not all” and “He that eateth my bread lifted up his heel against me,” John 13:10,18), but again without being named.
It seemed as if Jesus wished to give Judas every opportunity, even at this late hour, of repenting and making his confession.
For the last time, when they had sat down to eat, Jesus appealed him thus with the words, “One of you shall betray me” (Matthew 26:21; Mark 14:18; Luke 22:21; John 13:21). And at the end, in answer to the anxious queries of His disciples, “Is it I?”
He indicated his betrayer, not by name, but by a sign:
“He it is, for whom I shall dip the sop, and give it him” (John 13:26).
Immediately upon its reception, Judas left the supper room; the opportunity which he sought for was come (compare John 13:30; Matthew 26:16).
There is some doubt as to whether he actually received the eucharistic bread and wine previous to his departure or not, but most modern commentators hold that he did not. On his departure, Judas made his way to the high priests and their followers, and coming upon Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane, he betrayed his Master with a kiss (Matthew 26:47-50; Mark 14:43,44; Luke 22:47; John 18:2-5).
4. His Death:
After the betrayal, Mark, Luke and John are silent as regards Judas, and the accounts given in Matthew and Acts of his remorse and death vary in detail. According to Matthew, the actual condemnation of Jesus awakened Judas’ sense of guilt, and becoming still more despondent at his repulse by the chief priests and elders, “he cast down the pieces of silver into the sanctuary, and departed; and he went away and hanged himself.“
With the money the chief priests purchased the potter’s field, afterward called “the field of blood,” and in this way was fulfilled the prophecy of Zechariah (11:12-14) ascribed by Matthew to Jeremiah (Matthew 27:3-10).
The account given in Acts 1:16-20 is much shorter.
It mentions neither Judas’ repentance nor the chief priests, but simply states that Judas “obtained a field with the reward of his iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out” (Acts 1:18).
The author of Acts finds in this the fulfillment of the prophecy in Psalms 69:25. The Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) rendering, “When he had hanged himself, he burst asunder,” suggests a means of reconciling the two accounts.
II. CHARACTER AND THEORIES.
1. Joined the Apostles to Betray Jesus:
Much discussion and controversy have centered, not only around the discrepancies of the Gospel narratives of Judas, but also around his character and the problems connected with it.
That the betrayer of Jesus should also be one of the chosen Twelve has given opportunity for the attacks of the foes of Christianity from the earliest times (compare Orig., Con. Cel., ii.12); and the difficulty of finding any proper solution has proved so great that some have been induced to regard Judas as merely a personification of the spirit of Judaism.
The acceptance of this view would, however, invalidate the historical value of much of the Scriptural writings.
Other theories are put forward in explanation, namely, that Judas joined the apostolic band with the definite intention of betraying Jesus.
The aim of this intention has again received two different interpretations, both of which seek to elevate the character of Judas and to free him from the charge of sordid motives and cowardly treachery.
According to one, Judas was a strong patriot, who saw in Jesus the foe of his race and its ancient creed, and therefore betrayed Him in the interests of his country.
This view is, however, irreconcilable with the rejection of Judas by the chief priests (compare Matthew 27:3-10).
According to the other, Judas regarded himself as a true servant of Christianity, who assumed the role of traitor to precipitate the action of the Messiah and induce Him to manifest His miraculous powers by calling down the angels of God from heaven to help Him (compare Matthew 26:53).
His suicide was further due to his disappointment at the failure of Jesus to fulfill his expectations. This theory found favor in ancient times with the Cainites (compare above), and in modern days with De Quincey and Bishop Whately.
But the terms and manner of denunciation employed by Jesus in regard to Judas (compare also John 17:12) render this view also untenable.
2. Foreordained to Be a Traitor:
Another view is that Judas was foreordained to be the traitor:
that Jesus was conscious from the first that He was to suffer death on the cross, and chose Judas because He knew that he should betray Him and thus fulfill the Divine decrees (compare Matthew 26:54).
Those holding this view base their arguments on the omniscience of Jesus implied in John 2:24, Jesus “knew all men“; John 6:64, “Jesus knew from the beginning who should betray him,” and John 18:4, “knowing all the things that were coming upon him.”
Yet to take those texts literally would mean too rigid application of the doctrine of predestination.
It would treat Judas as a mere instrument, as a means and not an end in the hands of a higher power: it would render meaningless the appeals and reproaches made to him by Jesus and deny any real existence of that personal responsibility and sense of guilt which it was our Lord’s very purpose to awaken and stimulate in the hearts of His hearers.
John himself wrote after the event, but in the words of our Lord there was, as we have seen, a growing clearness in the manner in which He foretold His betrayal.
The omniscience of Jesus was greater than that of a mere clairvoyant who claimed to foretell the exact course of future events. It was the omniscience of one who knew on the one hand the ways of His Eternal Father among men, and who, on the other, penetrated into the deepest recesses of human character and beheld there all its secret feelings and motives and tendencies.
3. Betrayal the Result of Gradual Development:
Although a full discussion of the character of Judas would of necessity involve those ultimate problems of Free Will and Original Sin (Westcott) which no theology can adequately solve, theory which regards the betrayal as the result of a gradual development within the soul of Judas seems the most practical.
It is significant that Judas alone among the disciples was of southern extraction; and the differences in temperament and social outlook, together with the petty prejudices to which these generally give rise, may explain in part, though they do not justify, his after treachery–that lack of inner sympathy which existed between Judas and the rest of the apostles.
He undoubtedly possessed certain business ability, and was therefore appointed keeper of the purse.
But his heart could not have been clean, even from the first, as he administered even his primary charge dishonestly.
The cancer of this greed spread from the material to the spiritual. To none of the disciples did the fading of the dream of an earthly kingdom of pomp and glory bring greater disappointment than to Judas. The cords of love by which Jesus gradually drew the hearts of the other disciples to Himself, the teaching by which He uplifted their souls above all earthly things, were as chafing bonds to the selfishness of Judas. And from his fettered greed and disappointed ambition sprang jealousy and spite and hatred. It was the hatred, not of a strong, but of an essentially weak man.
Instead of making an open breach with his Lord, he remained ostensibly one of His followers:
and this continued contact with a goodness to which he would not yield (compare Swete on Mark 14:10), and his brooding over the rebukes of his Master, gave ready entrance for “Satan into his soul.”
But if he “knew the good and did not do it” (compare John 13:17), so also he was weak in the carrying out of his nefarious designs. It was this hesitancy, rather than a fiendish cunning, which induced him to remain till the last moment in the supper room, and which prompted the remark of Jesus “What thou doest, do quickly” (John 13:27).
Of piece with this weak-mindedness was his attempt to cast the blame upon the chief priests and elders (compare Matthew 27:3,4).
He sought to set himself right, not with the innocent Jesus whom he had betrayed, but with the accomplices in his crime; and because that world which his selfishness had made his god failed him at the last, he went and hanged himself.
It was the tragic end of one who espoused a great cause in the spirit of speculation and selfish ambition, and who weighed not the dread consequences to which those impure motives might lead him (compare also Bruce, Training of the Twelve; Latham, Pastor Pastorum; Stalker, Trial and Death of Jesus Christ).
4.0 Who was Judas Iscariot?4)http://www.gotquestions.org/Judas-Iscariot.html
Judas Iscariot is typically remembered for one thing: his betrayal of Jesus. He was one of the twelve disciples who lived with and followed Jesus for three years. He witnessed Jesus’ ministry, His teaching, and His many miracles. He was the treasurer for the group and used this trusted position to steal from their resources (John 12:6).
Judas was a common name in that era, and there are several other Judases mentioned in the New Testament. One of the other disciples was named Judas (John 14:22), and so was one of Jesus’ own half-brothers (Mark 6:3). To differentiate, John 6:71 and John 13:36 refer to Christ’s betrayer as “Judas, son of Simon Iscariot.”
Scholars have several ideas about the derivation of the surname. One is that Iscariot refers to Kerioth, a region or town in Judea. Another idea is that it refers to the Sicarii, a cadre of assassins among the Jewish rebels.
The possible association with the Sicarii allows for interesting speculation about Judas’ motives for his betrayal, but the fact that he made a conscious choice to betray Jesus (Luke 22:48) remains the same. The surname Iscariot is useful, if for no other reason, in that it leaves no doubt about which Judas is being referred to.
Here are some of the facts we glean from key verses about Judas and his betrayal:
Money was important to Judas. As already mentioned, he was a thief, and, according to Matthew 26:13–15, the chief priests paid him “thirty silver coins” to betray the Lord.
Jesus knew from the very beginning what Judas Iscariot would do. Jesus told His disciples, “Have I not chosen you, the Twelve? Yet one of you is a devil!” (John 6:70). And at the Last Supper, Jesus predicted His betrayal and identified the betrayer: “Jesus answered, ‘It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish.’ Then, dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, son of Simon” (John 13:26).
Jesus said that Judas Iscariot was not “clean”; i.e., he had not been born again and was not forgiven of his sins (John 13:10–11). In fact, Judas was empowered to do what he did by the devil himself: “As soon as Judas took the bread [that Jesus had given him], Satan entered into him” (John 13:27).
The other disciples had no clue that Judas Iscariot harbored treacherous thoughts. When Jesus mentioned a betrayer in their midst, the other disciples worried that it was they who would prove disloyal (John 13:22). No one suspected Judas. He was a trusted member of the Twelve. Even when Jesus told Judas, “What you are about to do, do quickly,” (John 13:27), and Judas left the Last Supper, the others at the table simply thought Judas had been sent to buy more food or to give something to charity (verses 28–29).
Judas Iscariot betrayed the Lord with a kiss, perfectly in keeping with his brazen duplicity (Luke 22:47–48). After committing his atrocious act, Judas “was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders” (Matthew 27:3). But we learn that remorse does not equal repentance—rather than make amends or seek forgiveness, “he went away and hanged himself” (Matthew 27:5).
Judas Iscariot fulfilled the prophecy of Psalm 41:9, “Even my close friend, someone I trusted, one who shared my bread, has turned against me” (cf. John 13:18). Yet Judas was fully responsible for his actions. Jesus said, “The Son of Man will go just as it is written about him. But woe to that man who betrays the Son of Man! It would be better for him if he had not been born” (Matthew 26:24).
Matthew 27:6–8 reports that the chief priests took the “blood money” from Judas and bought a potter’s field as a place for burying foreigners (thus fulfilling the prophecy of Zechariah 11:12–13). Acts 1:16–18 continues the story of what happened after Judas’ death and gives some additional information. Luke reports, “With the reward he got for his wickedness, Judas bought a field; there he fell headlong, his body burst open and all his intestines spilled out. Everyone in Jerusalem heard about this, so they called that field in their language Akeldama, that is, Field of Blood.” The additional detail we learn from Luke is that, after Judas hanged himself, his dead body fell into the very field purchased with his ill-gotten gains.
Given the fact of Judas’ close proximity to Jesus during three years of ministry, it is hard to imagine how he could follow through on such a dastardly betrayal. Judas’ story teaches us to guard against small, gradual failings that gain strength and power in our lives and that could open the door to more deadly influences. His story is also a great reminder that appearances can be deceiving. Jesus taught, “Many will say to me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name and in your name drive out demons and in your name perform many miracles?’ Then I will tell them plainly, ‘I never knew you. Away from me, you evildoers!’” (Matthew 7:22–23).
5.0 Judas Iscariot – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia5)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judas_Iscariot
Judas Iscariot (died c. 30–33 AD) was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original disciples of Jesus Christ, and son of Simon Iscariot (only mentioned in John 6:71 and John 13:26). He is known for the kiss and betrayal of Jesus to the Sanhedrin for thirty silver coins.6)Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:42, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:47, John 13:18, John 18:1 His name is often used synonymously with betrayal or treason.
Though there are varied accounts of his death, the traditional version sees him as having hanged himself following the betrayal. His place among the Twelve Apostles was later filled by Matthias.
Despite his notorious role in the Gospel narratives, Judas remains a controversial figure in Christian history. Judas’ betrayal, for instance, is seen as setting in motion the events that led to Jesus’ Crucifixion and Resurrection, which, according to traditional Christian theology, brought salvation to humanity. Gnostic texts – rejected by the mainstream Church as heretical – praise Judas for his role in triggering humanity’s salvation, and view Judas as the best of the apostles.7)See Gospel of Judas.
Role as an Apostle
Judas is mentioned in the synoptic gospels, the Gospel of John, and at the beginning of Acts of the Apostles. Judas was a common name in New Testament times. Judas Iscariot should not be confused with Jude Thomas (Saint Thomas the Apostle), or with Saint Jude Thaddaeus who was also one of the Twelve Apostles.
The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke state that Jesus sent out “the twelve” (including Judas) with power over unclean spirits and with a ministry of preaching and healing: Judas clearly played an active part in this apostolic ministry alongside the other eleven.8)See Matthew 10:5-10; Mark 6:6; and Luke 9:1 Origen of Alexandria, in his Commentary on John’s Gospel, reflected on Judas’ interactions with the other apostles and Jesus’ confidence in him prior to his betrayal.9)see Samuel Laeuchli, Origen’s Interpretation of Judas Iscariot, Church History, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Dec., 1953), pp. 253-268, available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/3161779), accessed 6 April 2015. However, in John’s Gospel, Judas’ outlook was differentiated – many of Jesus’ disciples abandoned him because of the difficulty of accepting his teachings, and Jesus asked the twelve if they would also leave him. Simon Peter spoke for the twelve: “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life”, but Jesus observed then that although Judas was one of the twelve whom he had chosen, he was “a devil”.10)John 6:67-71
Matthew directly states that Judas betrayed Jesus for a bribe of “thirty pieces of silver”11)These “pieces of silver” were most likely intended to be understood as silver Tyrian shekels., 12)Matthew 26:14 by identifying him with a kiss — “the kiss of Judas” — to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate‘s soldiers.
Mark’s Gospel states that the chief priests were looking for a sly way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast [of the Passover], since they were afraid that people would riot;13)Mark 14:1-2 instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. According to Luke’s account, Satan entered Judas at this time.14)“BibleGateway.com – Passage Lookup: Luke 22:3“. BibleGateway. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
According to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples’ money bag or box (Greek: γλωσσόκομον, glōssokomon),15)John 12:6 and John 13:29 but John’s Gospel makes no mention of the thirty pieces of silver as a fee for betrayal. The evangelist comments in John 12:5-6 that Judas spoke fine words about giving money to the poor, but the reality was “not that he cared for the poor, but [that] he was a thief, and had the money box; and he used to take what was put in it”. However, when in John 13:27-30, when Judas left the gathering of Jesus and His disciples with betrayal in mind,16)John 13:2, Jerusalem Bible translation some [of the disciples] thought that Judas might have been leaving to buy supplies or on a charitable errand.
Death of Judas in Biblical accounts
There are several different accounts of the death of Judas, including two in the modern Biblical canon:
• Matthew 27:3–10 says that Judas returned the money to the priests and committed suicide by hanging himself. They used it to buy the potter’s field. The Gospel account presents this as a fulfillment of prophecy.17)Matthew 27:9–10
• The Acts of the Apostles says that Judas used the money to buy a field, but fell headfirst, and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. This field is called Akeldama or Field of Blood.18)Acts 1:18., 19)Perseus Project: καὶ πρηνὴς γενόμενος ἐλάκησε μέσος, καὶ ἐξεχύθη πάντα τὰ σπλάγχνα αὐτοῦ
• Another account was preserved by the early Christian leader, Papias: “Judas walked about in this world a sad example of impiety; for his body having swollen to such an extent that he could not pass where a chariot could pass easily, he was crushed by the chariot, so that his bowels gushed out.”21)[Papias Fragment 3, 1742–1744]
The existence of conflicting accounts of the death of Judas has caused problems for scholars who have seen them as threatening the reliability of Scripture.22)Zwiep, Arie W. Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26. p. 109. This problem was one of the points causing C. S. Lewis, for example, to reject the view “that every statement in Scripture must be historical truth”.23)letter to Clyde S. Kilby, 7 May 1959, quoted in Michael J. Christensen, C. S. Lewis on Scripture, Abingdon, 1979, Appendix A.
Various attempts at harmonization have been suggested. Generally they have followed literal interpretations such as that of Augustine, which suggest that these simply describe different aspects of the same event – that Judas hanged himself in the field, and the rope eventually snapped and the fall burst his body open,24)Zwiep, Arie W. Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26. p. 109., 25)“Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Judas“. christnotes.org. Retrieved 2007-06-26. or that the accounts of Acts and Matthew refer to two different transactions.26)“The purchase of “the potter’s field”, Appendix 161 of the Companion Bible“. Retrieved 2008-02-15. Some have taken the descriptions as figurative: that the “falling prostrate” was Judas in anguish,27)The Monthly Christian Spectator 1851–1859 p.459 “while some writers regard the account of Judas’ death as simply figurative ..seized with preternatural anguish for his crime and its consequences his bowels gushed out.” and the “bursting out of the bowels” is pouring out emotion.28)Clarence Jordan The Substance of Faith: and Other Cotton Patch Sermons p.148 “Greeks thought of the bowels as being the seat of the emotions, the home of the soul. It’s like saying that all of Judas’ motions burst out, burst asunder”
Modern scholars tend to reject these approaches29)Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 114., 30)Charles Talbert, Reading Acts: A Literary and Theological Commentary, Smyth & Helwys (2005) p. 15., 31)Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary, Eerdmans (2004), p. 703. stating that the Matthew account is a midrashic exposition that allows the author to present the event as a fulfillment of prophetic passages from the Old Testament. They argue that the author adds imaginative details such as the thirty pieces of silver, and the fact that Judas hangs himself, to an earlier tradition about Judas’ death.32)Reed, David A. (2005). “”Saving Judas”—A social Scientific Approach to Judas’s Suicide in Matthew 27:3–10“(PDF). Biblical Theology Bulletin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
Matthew’s description of the death as fulfilment of a prophecy “spoken through Jeremiah the prophet” has caused difficulties, since it does not clearly correspond to any known version of the Book of Jeremiah but does appear to refer to a story from the Book of Zechariah 33)Zechariah 11:12–13 which describes the return of a payment of thirty pieces of silver.34)Vincent P. Branick, Understanding the New Testament and Its Message, (Paulist Press, 1998), pp. 126–128. Even writers such as Jerome and John Calvin concluded that this was obviously an error.35)Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary (Eerdmans, 2004), p. 710; Jerome, Epistolae 57.7: “This passage is not found in Jeremiah but in Zechariah, in quite different words and a different order” [Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:42, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:47, John 13:18, John 18:1 ]; John Calvin, Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark and Luke, 3:177: “The passage itself plainly shows that the name of Jeremiah has been put down by mistake, instead of Zechariah, for in Jeremiah we find nothing of this sort, nor any thing that even approaches to it.” [See Gospel of Judas.].
More recently, scholars have suggested that the Gospel writer may also have had a passage from Jeremiah in mind,36)Donald Senior, The Passion of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (Liturgical Press, 1985), pp. 107–108; Anthony Cane, The Place of Judas Iscariot in Christology (Ashgate Publishing, 2005), p. 50. such as chapters Jeremiah 18:1–4 and Jeremiah 19:1–13 which refers to a potter’s jar and a burial place, and chapter Jeremiah 32:6–15 which refers to a burial place and an earthenware jar.37)See also Maarten JJ Menken, ‘The Old Testament Quotation in Matthew 27,9–10’, Biblica 83 (2002): 9–10. Raymond Brown suggested, “the most plausible [explanation] is that Matthew 27:9–10 is presenting a mixed citation with words taken both from Zechariah and Jeremiah, and …he refers to that combination by one name. Jeremiah 18–9 concerns a potter (18:2–; 19:1), a purchase (19:1), the Valley of Hinnom (where the Field of Blood is traditionally located, 19:2), ‘innocent blood’(19:4), and the renaming of a place for burial (19:6, 11); and Jer 32:6–5 tells of the purchase of a field with silver.”38)Brown, Raymond (December 1, 1998). The Death of the Messiah, From Gethsemane to the Grave, Volume 1: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels. Yale University Press. p. 912. ISBN 0300140096. Randel Helms gives this as an example of the ‘fictional and imaginative’ use by early Christians of the Old Testament: “Matthew’s source has blended Jeremiah’s buying of a field and placing the deed in a pot with Zechariah’s casting of thirty pieces of silver down in the temple and the purchase of the Potter’s Field. The story of Judas’s actions after the betrayal is one of the most revealing examples of the early Christians’ fictional and imaginative use of the Old Testament as a book about Jesus.”39)p116 of chapter vi, ‘ The Passion Narrative ‘ from ” Gospel fictions ” by Randel Helms, published 1988 by Prometheus Books Another plausible explanation comes through Charles Ryrie. “They are ascribed to Jeremiah since, in Jesus’ day, the books of the prophets were headed by Jeremiah, not Isaiah as now, and the quotation is identified by the name of the first book of the group.”40)p1568, Notes on Matt. 27:9, Ryrie Study Bible New American Standard edition, 1995 update, published by the Moody Bible Institute.
In the Greek New Testament, Judas is called Ὶούδας Ὶσκάριωθ or Ὶσκαριώτης. “Judas” (spelled “Ioudas” (Ιούδαι) in ancient Greek and “Iudas” in Latin, pronounced yudas in both) is the Greek form of the common name Judah(יהודה, Yehûdâh, Hebrew for “God is praised”). The Greek spelling underlies other names in the New Testament that are traditionally rendered differently in English: Judah and Jude. The significance of “Iscariot” is uncertain. There are several major theories on etymology:
• One popular explanation derives Iscariot from Hebrew איש־קריות, Îš-Qrîyôth, or “man of Kerioth”. The Gospel of John refers to Judas as “son of Simon Iscariot” (although some translations only refer to him as “the son of Simon” (Jn 6:71, Jn 13:26, King James Version),41)John 6:71 and John 13:26 implying it was not Judas, but his father, who came from there.42)Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony, Eerdmans (2006), p. 106. Some speculate that Kerioth refers to a region in Judea, but it is also the name of two known Judean towns.43)New English Translation Bible, n. 11 in Matthew 11.
• A second theory is that “Iscariot” identifies Judas as a member of the sicarii.44)Bastiaan van Iersel, Mark: A Reader-Response Commentary, Continuum International (1998), p. 167. These were a cadre of assassins among Jewish rebels intent on driving the Romans out of Judea. However, some historians maintain thesicarii arose in the 40s or 50s of the 1st century, in which case Judas could not have been a member.45)Brown, Raymond E. (1994). The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels v.1 pp. 688–92. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-49448-3; Meier, John P. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus (2001). v. 3, p. 210. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-46993-4.
• A third possibility advanced by Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg is that Iscariot means “the liar” or “the false one”, perhaps from the Aramaic .46)Joan E. Taylor, “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot)”, pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 369. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12. אִשְׁקַרְיָא
• Fourth, some have proposed that the word derives from an Aramaic word meaning “red color”, from the root .47)Joan E. Taylor, “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot)”, pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 369. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12. סקר
• Fifth, the word derives from one of the Aramaic roots סכר or סגר. This would mean “to deliver”, based on the LXX rendering of Isaiah 19:4a—a theory advanced by J. Alfred Morin.48)Joan E. Taylor, “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot)”, pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 370. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
• Finally, the epithet could be associated with the manner of Judas’ death, i.e., hanging. This would mean Iscariot derives from a kind of Greek-Aramaic hybrid: אִסְכַּרְיוּתָא, Iskarioutha, “chokiness” or “constriction.” This might indicate that the epithet was applied posthumously by the remaining disciples, but Joan E. Taylor has argued that it was a descriptive name given to Judas by Jesus, since other disciples such as Simon Peter/Cephas (Kephas = “rock”) were also given such names.42.0 49)Joan E. Taylor, “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot)”, pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 379–383. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 211-03-12.
Betrayal of Jesus
There are several explanations as to why Judas betrayed Jesus.50)Joel B. Green; Scot McKnight; I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVarsity Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1. In the earliest account, in the Gospel of Mark, when he goes to the chief priests to betray Jesus, he is offered money as a reward, but it is not clear that money is his motivation.51)Mark 14:10–11 In the Gospel of Matthew account, on the other hand, he asks what they will pay him for handing Jesus over.52)Matthew 26:14–16 In the Gospel of Luke53)Luke 22:3–6 and the Gospel of John,54)John 13:27 the devil enters into Judas, causing him to offer to betray Jesus. The Gospel of John account has Judas complaining that money has been spent on expensive perfumes to anoint Jesus which could have been spent on the poor, but adds that he was the keeper of the apostles’ purse and used to steal from it.55)John 12:1–6
One suggestion has been that Judas expected Jesus to overthrow Roman rule of Israel. In this view, Judas is a disillusioned disciple betraying Jesus not so much because he loved money, but because he loved his country and thought Jesus had failed it.56)Joel B. Green; Scot McKnight; I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVarsity Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1. Another is that Jesus was causing unrest likely to increase tensions with the Roman authorities and they thought he should be restrained until after the Passover, when everyone had gone back home and the commotion had died down.57)Dimont, Jews, God & History at 135 (New York: North American Library, 2d ed. 1962).
The Gospels suggest that Jesus foresaw (John 6:64, Matthew 26:25) and allowed Judas’ betrayal (John 13:27–28).58).Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26, Arie W. Zwiep. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. One explanation is that Jesus allowed the betrayal because it would allow God’s plan to be fulfilled. Another is that regardless of the betrayal, Jesus was ultimately destined for crucifixion.59).Did Judas betray Jesus Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, April 2006 In April 2006, a Coptic papyrus manuscript titled the Gospel of Judas from 200 AD was translated, suggesting that Jesus told Judas to betray him,60)Associated Press, “Ancient Manuscript Suggests Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him”, Fox News Thursday, 6 April 2006. although some scholars question the translation.61).André Gagné, “A Critical Note on the Meaning of APOPHASIS in Gospel of Judas 33:1.” Laval théologique et philosophique 63 (2007): 377–83., 62)Deconick, April D. (December 1, 2007). “Gospel Truth”. New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
Judas is the subject of philosophical writings, including The Problem of Natural Evil by Bertrand Russell and “Three Versions of Judas“, a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. They allege various problematic ideological contradictions with the discrepancy between Judas’ actions and his eternal punishment. Bruce Reichenbach argues that if Jesus foresees Judas’ betrayal, then the betrayal is not an act of free will,63)John S. Feinberg; David Basinger (2001). Predestination & free will: four views of divine sovereignty & human freedom. Kregel Publications. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8254-3489-1. and therefore should not be punishable. Conversely, it is argued that just because the betrayal was foretold, it does not prevent Judas from exercising his own free will in this matter.64)John Phillips (1986). Exploring the gospel of John: an expository commentary. InterVarsity Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-87784-567-6. Other scholars argue that Judas acted in obedience to God’s will.65).Authenticating the activities of Jesus, Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. The gospels suggest that Judas is apparently bound up with the fulfillment of God’s purposes (John 13:18, John 17:12, Matthew 26:23–25, Luke 22:21–22, Matt 27:9–10, Acts 1:16, Acts 1:20),66).Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26, Arie W. Zwiep. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. yet woe is upon him, and he would have been better unborn (Matthew 26:23–25). The difficulty inherent in the saying is its paradoxicality: if Judas had not been born, the Son of Man would apparently no longer do “as it is written of him.” The consequence of this apologetic approach is that Judas’ actions come to be seen as necessary and unavoidable, yet leading to condemnation.67).The place of Judas Iscariot in christology, Anthony Cane. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
Erasmus believed that Judas was free to change his intention, but Martin Luther argued in rebuttal that Judas’ will was immutable. John Calvin states that Judas was predestined to damnation, but writes on the question of Judas’ guilt: “surely in Judas’ betrayal, it will be no more right, because God himself willed that his son be delivered up and delivered him up to death, to ascribe the guilt of the crime to God than to transfer the credit for redemption to Judas.”68).A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature, David L. Jeffrey. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. The Catholic Church has no view on his damnation. The Vatican only proclaims individuals’ Eternal Salvation through the Canon of Saints. There is no ‘Canon of the Damned’, nor any official proclamation of the damnation of Judas.
It is speculated that Judas’ damnation, which seems possible from the Gospels’ text, may not stem from his betrayal of Christ, but from the despair which caused him to subsequently commit suicide.69).A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature, David L. Jeffrey. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. This position is not without its problems since Judas was already damned by Jesus even before he committed suicide (see John 17:12), but it does avoid the paradox of Judas’ predestined act setting in motion both the salvation of all mankind and his own damnation.
The betrayal of Jesus by one of his disciples is widely regarded by scholars as authentic, based on the criterion of embarrassment: it is considered unlikely that the early church would have invented this tradition, since it appears to reflect badly on Jesus.70)Robert H. Stein, “Criteria for the Gospels’ Authenticity”, in Paul Copan, William Lane Craig, Contending with Christianity’s Critics: Answering New Atheists & Other Objectors (B&H Publishing Group, 2009), page 93; John P. Meier, “Criteria: How Do We Decide What Comes from Jesus?” in James D. G. Dunn, Scot McKnight, The Historical Jesus in Recent Research (Eisenbrauns, 2005) pages 127–128.
HUGH J. SCHONFIELD: In his 1965 book The Passover Plot, British New Testament scholar Hugh J. Schonfield suggested that the crucifixion of Christ was a conscious re-enactment of Biblical prophecy and that Judas acted with the full knowledge and consent of Jesus in “betraying” him to the authorities. The book has been variously described as ‘factually groundless’,71).John A. T. Robinson, Can We Trust the New Testament? cited in Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (College Press, 1996) page 71. based on ‘little data’ and ‘wild suppositions’,72).John Shelby Spong, The Easter Moment (HarperCollins, 2010) page 150. ‘disturbing’ and ‘tawdry’.73).Susan Gubar, Judas: A Biography (W. W. Norton & Company, 2009) page 298–299 (referring to several books, including this one).
BART EHRMAN: though suggesting that the betrayal is “about as historically certain as anything else in the tradition”, argues that what was betrayed was not the whereabouts of Jesus, but his private teachings.74)Bart Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (Oxford University Press, 1999) pages 216–7.
JOHN SHELBY SPONG: In his book The Sins of Scripture, John Shelby Spong says that “the whole story of Judas has the feeling of being contrived”.75)John Shelby Spong, The Sins of Scripture (HarperCollins, 2009). He writes: “the act of betrayal by a member of the twelve disciples is not found in the earliest Christian writings. Judas is first placed into the Christian story by the Gospel of Mark (Mark 3:19), who wrote in the early years of the eighth decade of the Common Era.”76)John Shelby Spong, The Sins of Scripture (HarperCollins, 2009). He points out that some of the Gospels, after the Crucifixion, refer to the number of Disciples as “Twelve”, as if Judas were still among them. Comparing the three conflicting descriptions of Judas’s death — hanging, leaping into a pit, and disemboweling — with three Old Testament betrayals followed by similar suicides, he suggests that these were the real source of the story.
Spong’s conclusion is that early Bible authors, after the First Jewish-Roman War, sought to distance themselves from Rome’s enemies. They augmented the Gospels with a story of a disciple, personified in Judas as the Jewish state, who either betrayed or handed over Jesus to his Roman crucifiers. Spong identifies this augmentation with the origin of modern Anti-Semitism.
HYAM MACCOBY: Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby suggests that in the New Testament, the name “Judas” was constructed as an attack on the Judaeans or on the Judaean religious establishment held responsible for executing Jesus.77)Hyam Maccoby, Antisemitism And Modernity, Routledge 2006, p. 14.
Role in apocrypha
Judas has been a figure of great interest to esoteric groups, such as many Gnostic sects. Irenaeus records the beliefs of one Gnostic sect, the Cainites, who believed that Judas was an instrument of the Sophia, Divine Wisdom, thus earning the hatred of the Demiurge. His betrayal of Jesus thus was a victory over the materialist world. The Cainites later split into two groups, disagreeing over the ultimate significance of Jesus in their cosmology.
Gospel of Judas
During the 1970s, a Coptic papyrus codex (book) was discovered near Beni Masah, Egypt which appeared to be a 3rd- or 4th-century-AD copy of a 2nd-century original,78).Timeline of early Christianity at National Geographic, 79).Judas ‘helped Jesus save mankind’ BBC News, 7 May 2006 (following National Geographic publication). describing the story of Jesus’s death from the viewpoint of Judas. At its conclusion, the text identifies itself as “the Gospel of Judas” (Euangelion Ioudas).
The discovery was given dramatic international exposure in April 2006 when the US National Geographic magazine published a feature article entitled “The Gospel of Judas” with images of the fragile codex and analytical commentary by relevant experts and interested observers (but not a comprehensive translation). The article’s introduction stated: “An ancient text lost for 1,700 years says Christ’s betrayer was his truest disciple”.80)Cockburn A The Gospel of Judas National Geographic (USA) May 2006 The article points to some evidence that the original document was extant in the 2nd century: “Around A.D. 180, Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon in what was then Roman Gaul, wrote a massive treatise called Against Heresies [in which he attacked] a ‘fictitious history,’ which ‘they style the Gospel of Judas.'”81)Cockburn A at page 3.
Before the magazine’s edition was circulated, other news media gave exposure to the story, abridging and selectively reporting it.82)Associated Press, “Ancient Manuscript Suggests Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him”, Fox News Thursday, 6 April 2006.
In December 2007, a New York Times op-ed article by April DeConick asserted that the National Geographic’s translation is badly flawed: For example, in one instance the National Geographic transcription refers to Judas as a “daimon”, which the society’s experts have translated as “spirit”. However, the universally accepted word for “spirit” is “pneuma” — in Gnostic literature “daimon” is always taken to mean “demon”.83)Deconick A D Gospel Truth New York Times 1 December 2007 The National Geographic Society responded that “Virtually all issues April D. DeConick raises about translation choices are addressed in footnotes in both the popular and critical editions”.84).Statement from National Geographic in Response to April DeConick’s New York Times Op-Ed “Gospel Truth“ In a later review of the issues and relevant publications, critic Joan Acocella questioned whether ulterior intentions had not begun to supersede historical analysis, e.g., whether publication of The Gospel of Judas could be an attempt to roll back ancient anti-semitic imputations. She concluded that the ongoing clash between scriptural fundamentalism and attempts at revision were childish because of the unreliability of the sources. Therefore, she argued, “People interpret, and cheat. The answer is not to fix the Bible but to fix ourselves.”85)Acocella J Betrayal: Should we hate Judas Iscariot? The New Yorker 3 August 2009 Other scholars have questioned the initial translation and interpretation of the Gospel of Judas by the National Geographic team of experts.86).André Gagné, “A Critical Note on the Meaning of APOPHASIS in Gospel of Judas 33:1.” Laval théologique et philosophique 63 (2007): 377–83.
Gospel of Barnabas
According to medieval copies (the earliest copies from the 15th century) of the Gospel of Barnabas it was Judas, not Jesus, who was crucified on the cross. This work states that Judas’s appearance was transformed to that of Jesus’, when the former, out of betrayal, led the Roman soldiers to arrest Jesus who by then was ascended to the heavens. This transformation of appearance was so identical that the masses, followers of Christ, and even the Mother of Jesus, Mary, initially thought that the one arrested and crucified was Jesus himself. The gospel then mentions that after three days since burial, Judas’s body was stolen from his grave, and then the rumors spread of Jesus being risen from the dead. When Jesus was informed in the third heaven about what happened, he prayed to God to be sent back to the earth, and descended and gathered his mother, disciples, and followers, and told them the truth of what happened. He then ascended back to the heavens, and will come back at the end of times as a just king.
This Gospel is considered by the majority of Christians to be late and pseudepigraphical; however, some academics suggest that it may contain some remnants of an earlier apocryphal work (perhaps Gnostic, Ebionite or Diatessaronic), redacted to bring it more in line with Islamic doctrine. Some Muslims consider the surviving versions as transmitting a suppressed apostolic original. Some Islamic organizations cite it in support of the Islamic view of Jesus.
Representations and Symbolism
The term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer, and Judas has become the archetype of the traitor in Western art and literature. Judas is given some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story, and appears in numerous modern novels and movies.
In the Eastern Orthodox hymns of Holy Wednesday (the Wednesday before Pascha), Judas is contrasted with the woman who anointed Jesus with expensive perfume and washed his feet with her tears. According to the Gospel of John, Judas protested at this apparent extravagance, suggesting that the money spent on it should have been given to the poor. After this, Judas went to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus for money. The hymns of Holy Wednesday contrast these two figures, encouraging believers to avoid the example of the fallen disciple and instead to imitate Mary’s example of repentance. Also, Wednesday is observed as a day of fasting from meat, dairy products, and olive oil throughout the year in memory of the betrayal of Judas. The prayers of preparation for receiving the Eucharist also make mention of Judas’s betrayal: “I will not reveal your mysteries to your enemies, neither like Judas will I betray you with a kiss, but like the thief on the cross I will confess you.”
Judas Iscariot is often represented with red hair in Spanish culture 87).pelo de Judas (Judas hair) in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española., 88).Page 314 of article Red Hair from Bentley’s Miscellany, July 1851. The eclectic magazine of foreign literature, science, and art, Volumen 2; Volumen 23, Leavitt, Trow, & Co., 1851., 89).Page 256 of Letters from Spain, Joseph Blanco White, H. Colburn, 1825. and by William Shakespeare.90).Page 256 of Letters from Spain, Joseph Blanco White, H. Colburn, 1825., 91).Judas colour in page 473 of A glossary: or, Collection of words, phrases, names, and allusions to customs, proverbs, etc., which have been thought to require illustration, in the words of English authors, particularly Shakespeare, and his contemporaries, Volumen 1. Robert Nares, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, Thomas Wright. J. R. Smith, 1859
The practice is comparable to the Renaissance portrayal of Jews with red hair, which was then regarded as a negative trait and which may have been used to correlate Judas Iscariot with contemporary Jews.92)Judas Red Hair and The Jews, Journal of Jewish Art , 1982, Melinnkoff R.M
In paintings depicting the Last Supper, Judas is occasionally depicted with a dark-colored halo (contrasting with the lighter halos of the other apostles) to signify his former status as an apostle. More commonly, however, he is the only one at the table without one. In some church stained glass windows he is also depicted with a dark halo such as in one of the windows of the Church of St John the Baptist, Yeovil.
Father – Simon Iscariot
1.0) Source: http://christianity.about.com/od/newtestamentpeople/a/Judas-Iscariot.htm (By Jack Zavada)
2.0) Source: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/smiths-bible-dictionary/judas-iscariot.html
3.0) Source: http://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/judas-iscariot.html
4.0) Source: http://www.gotquestions.org/Judas-Iscariot.html
5.0) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judas_Iscariot
5.0) Source: bibleresources.americanbible.org | Tittle: “A Guide to Key Events, Characters and Themes of the Bible”
References [ + ]
|1.||↑||http://christianity.about.com/od/newtestamentpeople/a/Judas-Iscariot.htm (By Jack Zavada).|
|3.||↑||C. M. Kerr http://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/judas-iscariot.html|
|6.||↑||Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:42, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:47, John 13:18, John 18:1|
|7.||↑||See Gospel of Judas.|
|8.||↑||See Matthew 10:5-10; Mark 6:6; and Luke 9:1|
|9.||↑||see Samuel Laeuchli, Origen’s Interpretation of Judas Iscariot, Church History, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Dec., 1953), pp. 253-268, available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/3161779), accessed 6 April 2015.|
|11.||↑||These “pieces of silver” were most likely intended to be understood as silver Tyrian shekels.|
|14.||↑||“BibleGateway.com – Passage Lookup: Luke 22:3“. BibleGateway. Retrieved 2008-06-21.|
|15.||↑||John 12:6 and John 13:29|
|16.||↑||John 13:2, Jerusalem Bible translation|
|19.||↑||Perseus Project: καὶ πρηνὴς γενόμενος ἐλάκησε μέσος, καὶ ἐξεχύθη πάντα τὰ σπλάγχνα αὐτοῦ|
|20.||↑||Gospel of Judas 44–45.|
|21.||↑||[Papias Fragment 3, 1742–1744]|
|22, 24.||↑||Zwiep, Arie W. Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26. p. 109.|
|23.||↑||letter to Clyde S. Kilby, 7 May 1959, quoted in Michael J. Christensen, C. S. Lewis on Scripture, Abingdon, 1979, Appendix A.|
|25.||↑||“Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Judas“. christnotes.org. Retrieved 2007-06-26.|
|26.||↑||“The purchase of “the potter’s field”, Appendix 161 of the Companion Bible“. Retrieved 2008-02-15.|
|27.||↑||The Monthly Christian Spectator 1851–1859 p.459 “while some writers regard the account of Judas’ death as simply figurative ..seized with preternatural anguish for his crime and its consequences his bowels gushed out.”|
|28.||↑||Clarence Jordan The Substance of Faith: and Other Cotton Patch Sermons p.148 “Greeks thought of the bowels as being the seat of the emotions, the home of the soul. It’s like saying that all of Judas’ motions burst out, burst asunder”|
|29.||↑||Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 114.|
|30.||↑||Charles Talbert, Reading Acts: A Literary and Theological Commentary, Smyth & Helwys (2005) p. 15.|
|31.||↑||Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary, Eerdmans (2004), p. 703.|
|32.||↑||Reed, David A. (2005). “”Saving Judas”—A social Scientific Approach to Judas’s Suicide in Matthew 27:3–10“(PDF). Biblical Theology Bulletin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-06-26.|
|34.||↑||Vincent P. Branick, Understanding the New Testament and Its Message, (Paulist Press, 1998), pp. 126–128.|
|35.||↑||Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary (Eerdmans, 2004), p. 710; Jerome, Epistolae 57.7: “This passage is not found in Jeremiah but in Zechariah, in quite different words and a different order” [Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:42, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:47, John 13:18, John 18:1 ]; John Calvin, Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark and Luke, 3:177: “The passage itself plainly shows that the name of Jeremiah has been put down by mistake, instead of Zechariah, for in Jeremiah we find nothing of this sort, nor any thing that even approaches to it.” [See Gospel of Judas.].|
|36.||↑||Donald Senior, The Passion of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (Liturgical Press, 1985), pp. 107–108; Anthony Cane, The Place of Judas Iscariot in Christology (Ashgate Publishing, 2005), p. 50.|
|37.||↑||See also Maarten JJ Menken, ‘The Old Testament Quotation in Matthew 27,9–10’, Biblica 83 (2002): 9–10.|
|38.||↑||Brown, Raymond (December 1, 1998). The Death of the Messiah, From Gethsemane to the Grave, Volume 1: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels. Yale University Press. p. 912. ISBN 0300140096.|
|39.||↑||p116 of chapter vi, ‘ The Passion Narrative ‘ from ” Gospel fictions ” by Randel Helms, published 1988 by Prometheus Books|
|40.||↑||p1568, Notes on Matt. 27:9, Ryrie Study Bible New American Standard edition, 1995 update, published by the Moody Bible Institute.|
|41.||↑||John 6:71 and John 13:26|
|42.||↑||Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony, Eerdmans (2006), p. 106.|
|43.||↑||New English Translation Bible, n. 11 in Matthew 11.|
|44.||↑||Bastiaan van Iersel, Mark: A Reader-Response Commentary, Continuum International (1998), p. 167.|
|45.||↑||Brown, Raymond E. (1994). The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels v.1 pp. 688–92. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-49448-3; Meier, John P. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus (2001). v. 3, p. 210. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-46993-4.|
|46, 47.||↑||Joan E. Taylor, “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot)”, pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 369. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.|
|48.||↑||Joan E. Taylor, “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot)”, pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 370. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.|
|49.||↑||Joan E. Taylor, “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot)”, pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 379–383. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 211-03-12.|
|50.||↑||Joel B. Green; Scot McKnight; I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVarsity Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1.|
|56.||↑||Joel B. Green; Scot McKnight; I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVarsity Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1.|
|57.||↑||Dimont, Jews, God & History at 135 (New York: North American Library, 2d ed. 1962).|
|58, 66.||↑||.Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26, Arie W. Zwiep. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.|
|59.||↑||.Did Judas betray Jesus Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, April 2006|
|60, 82.||↑||Associated Press, “Ancient Manuscript Suggests Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him”, Fox News Thursday, 6 April 2006.|
|61, 86.||↑||.André Gagné, “A Critical Note on the Meaning of APOPHASIS in Gospel of Judas 33:1.” Laval théologique et philosophique 63 (2007): 377–83.|
|62.||↑||Deconick, April D. (December 1, 2007). “Gospel Truth”. New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-01.|
|63.||↑||John S. Feinberg; David Basinger (2001). Predestination & free will: four views of divine sovereignty & human freedom. Kregel Publications. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8254-3489-1.|
|64.||↑||John Phillips (1986). Exploring the gospel of John: an expository commentary. InterVarsity Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-87784-567-6.|
|65.||↑||.Authenticating the activities of Jesus, Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.|
|67.||↑||.The place of Judas Iscariot in christology, Anthony Cane. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.|
|68.||↑||.A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature, David L. Jeffrey. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.|
|69.||↑||.A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature, David L. Jeffrey. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.|
|70.||↑||Robert H. Stein, “Criteria for the Gospels’ Authenticity”, in Paul Copan, William Lane Craig, Contending with Christianity’s Critics: Answering New Atheists & Other Objectors (B&H Publishing Group, 2009), page 93; John P. Meier, “Criteria: How Do We Decide What Comes from Jesus?” in James D. G. Dunn, Scot McKnight, The Historical Jesus in Recent Research (Eisenbrauns, 2005) pages 127–128.|
|71.||↑||.John A. T. Robinson, Can We Trust the New Testament? cited in Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (College Press, 1996) page 71.|
|72.||↑||.John Shelby Spong, The Easter Moment (HarperCollins, 2010) page 150.|
|73.||↑||.Susan Gubar, Judas: A Biography (W. W. Norton & Company, 2009) page 298–299 (referring to several books, including this one).|
|74.||↑||Bart Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (Oxford University Press, 1999) pages 216–7.|
|75, 76.||↑||John Shelby Spong, The Sins of Scripture (HarperCollins, 2009).|
|77.||↑||Hyam Maccoby, Antisemitism And Modernity, Routledge 2006, p. 14.|
|78.||↑||.Timeline of early Christianity at National Geographic|
|79.||↑||.Judas ‘helped Jesus save mankind’ BBC News, 7 May 2006 (following National Geographic publication).|
|80.||↑||Cockburn A The Gospel of Judas National Geographic (USA) May 2006|
|81.||↑||Cockburn A at page 3.|
|83.||↑||Deconick A D Gospel Truth New York Times 1 December 2007|
|84.||↑||.Statement from National Geographic in Response to April DeConick’s New York Times Op-Ed “Gospel Truth“|
|85.||↑||Acocella J Betrayal: Should we hate Judas Iscariot? The New Yorker 3 August 2009|
|87.||↑||.pelo de Judas (Judas hair) in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.|
|88.||↑||.Page 314 of article Red Hair from Bentley’s Miscellany, July 1851. The eclectic magazine of foreign literature, science, and art, Volumen 2; Volumen 23, Leavitt, Trow, & Co., 1851.|
|89, 90.||↑||.Page 256 of Letters from Spain, Joseph Blanco White, H. Colburn, 1825.|
|91.||↑||.Judas colour in page 473 of A glossary: or, Collection of words, phrases, names, and allusions to customs, proverbs, etc., which have been thought to require illustration, in the words of English authors, particularly Shakespeare, and his contemporaries, Volumen 1. Robert Nares, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, Thomas Wright. J. R. Smith, 1859|
|92.||↑||Judas Red Hair and The Jews, Journal of Jewish Art , 1982, Melinnkoff R.M|