Ancient Egypt’s last independent ruler was also her most celebrated – Queen Cleopatra. She ended her life committing suicide after her defeat at the battle of Actium (31 BC).
The victorious Roman ruler Octavian (since 27 BC called Caesar Augustus) has kept the Hellenistic administration of the Ptolemies in place, highly effective as it is in extracting as much wealth as possible from the land and its people. The country now provides the distant imperial capital, Rome, with a large proportion of its grain.
ORIGINAL SOURCE: timemaps.com