ME: Rise of Islam 19th CE

Timeline of Middle Eastern history.

[drop1816downhead style=”btn-info” size=”btn-lg” split=””] HISTORICAL EVENT OF THE MIDDLE EAST[/dropdownhead]

Timeline of Islamic history: 6th | 7th | 8th | 9th | 10th | 11th | 12th | 13th | 14th | 15th | 16th | 17th | 18th | 19th | 20th | 21st century
2ND millennium CE
19TH CENTURY (1801–1900) (1215 AH – 1318 AH)
1803   ASSASSINATION: Shah Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud assassinated. 
  SOVEREIGNTY: Shah Shuja proclaimed King of Afghanistan.
1804   REVOLT: Uprising under George Petrovich against Janissary garrison at Belgrade marked beginning of Serbian Revolution
  REPUBLIC: Othman dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Northern Nigeria.
1805   CAPTURE: Saud bin Abdul Aziz captured Medina 
DEFEAT: defeating the Ottoman Empire garrison.
  Faraizi movement launched in Bengal.
  Sultan Selim III yields to the demand that Muhammad Ali be appointed wāli of Egypt.
1806   Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan.
1807   DEPOSITION: Selim III deposed by Janissaries.
  REVOLT: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination.
  Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.
1808   Bairakdar, the ayan of Rusçuk, having arrived in Constantinople too late to restore Selim III (who had been strangled), installed Mahmud II, the sole surviving member of the Ottoman line.
1811   Birth of Siyyid Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad known as the Báb, founder of Bábí movement
OCCUPATION: British occupied Indonesia.
  Muhammad Ali has Mamluks massacred in the Citadel of Cairo, thereby consolidating his absolute power.
1812   VICTORY: Medina fell to Egyptians.
  TREATY: Treaty of Bucharest between Ottoman Empire and Russia end a war of 6 years
  Mecca and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and 
Saudis expelled from Hejaz.
1814   TREATY: Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as the Definitive Treaty.
  ASSASSINATION: Death of Saud bin Abdul Aziz. King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.
1816   SOVEREIGNTY: British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch
1817   Sir Syed Ahmad Khan born.
1818   CESSATION: Conclusion of Egypt’s seven-year campaign against the Wahabis in Arabia, who had occupied Mecca and Medina and threatened Syria. As a result, the eastern coast of the Mediterranean fell under Egyptian control.
1821   Alexander Ypsilantis led Greek insurgents across the river Prut into Danubian Principalities on March 6 (n.s.)
WAR: Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
1822   Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.
  INDEPENDENCE: Greek assembly at Epidauros declared Greek independence and drew up an organic statute establishing a parliament and executive directory.
1826   Janissaries massacred by forces loyal to Mahmud II after they revolted following formation of new army corps.
1827   TREATY: Malaya became a preserve of the British according to AngloNetherland treaty in 1824.
1828   WAR: Russia declared war against Ottoman Empire.
1829   TREATY: Treaty of Adrianople ends the war Russo Turkish war 1828
1830   OCCUPATION: French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria 
CESSATION: End of 313 years rule of Turks.
1831   Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad movement in India fell fighting the Sikhs in Balakot.
  CAPITAL CITY: Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.
1832   DEFEAT: Turks defeated in the battle of Konya by Egyptian forces.
1833   At the urging of France, the Convention of Kütahya ended the war between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire and provided that the empire grant the sultan of Egypt all of Syria and Adana.
  TREATY: The Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi established alliance between the Ottoman Empire and Russia and provided that the Ottomans would close the Dardanelles to any foreign warships at the Russians’ request.
1834   SOVEREIGNTY: Abdul Qadir of Algeria recognized as ruler of the area under his control by the French.
1839   INDEPENDENCE: In response to threats by Egyptian wāli Muhammad Ali to declare himself independent, an
  INVASIONS: Ottoman army began (March) the invasion of Syria from the Euphrates. 
DEFEAT: Ottoman army It was defeated (June 24) by the Egyptians in the battle of Nezib.
  TREACHERY On July 1 the Turkish fleet surrendered itself (possibly by an act of treachery) to Muhammad Ali in Alexandria.
  The Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane (Supreme Edict of the Rose House) issued by sultan Abdülmecid I, which began the Tanzimât reforms of the Ottoman Empire.
1840   ALLIANCE: Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria.
  British free occupied Aden.
1841   REPUBLIC: State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria.
1842   Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. He crossed over to Morocco.
  ASSASSINATION: Shah Shuja assassinated 
CESSATION: End of the Durrani rule in Afghanistan.
1847   Amir Abdul Qadir surrendered to France under the condition of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice, but France violated its pledge and sent him as a captive to France.
1849   Death of Muhammad Ali of Egypt.
1850   EXECUTION: The Báb is executed by the Persian government. 
EXECUTION: Táhirih, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Bábism also executed.
1852   Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napoleon III. He settled in Ottoman Empire.
1853   OCCUPATION: After a series of intrigues ostensibly designed to enable it to act as protector of Orthodox Christians in Ottoman territories failed, Russia occupied the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in March.
  WAR: The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia in October beginning the Crimean War. Great Britain and France would declare war on Russia the following March.
1856   GOVERNMENT Hatt-ı Hümâyûnu (the Reform Edict of 1856) is issued on February 18 and constitutes the most important Ottoman reform measure of the nineteenth century. It guaranteed the lives and property of Christians, replaced the heads of churches with a national synod, provided full freedom of conscience and civil participation for adherents to all religions. The edict was forced on the sultan by the British, French and Austrians to forestall a Russian intervention.
  TREATY: Treaty of Paris (March 30) ends Crimean War, and admits Turkey into the European concert, whereby its independence and imperial integrity was guaranteed. Russia ceded the mouths of the Danube and Bessarabia, returned Kurs, relinquished its claim as protector of Christians in the Ottoman Empire and agreed to the neutralization of the Black Sea.
1857   CAPTURE: British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years.
  EXPULSION: Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.
1858   Feudal holdings abolished in the Ottoman Empire.
1859   REPUBLIC: Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the Islamic State of Dagestan became a Russian province.
1860   DEFEAT: Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.
  Masjid-e-Abu Hurairah, established in Cardiff, is the first mosque in Britain.
  WAR: Civil War between Syrian Druzes and Marionite Christians erupted. Authorized by the European Powers, France sent expeditionary force which restored order by June 1861.
1861   COMMERCE: Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I died and is succeeded by Abdülaziz whose reign (1861-1876) is notable for the rapid spread of western influence (particularly Great Britain and France, allies of the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War), as evidenced by the first foreign loans, railroad construction, and public debt administration, and the rise of secular liberalism, shown by literary revival, translation of Western literature, rise of Turkish journalism and establishment of universities.
  OVERTHROW: Overthrow of the Bambara Empire by the Toucouleur Empire.
1862   CESSATION: Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan.
  OVERTHROW: Overthrow of the Massina Empire by the Toucouleur Empire.
1863   COMMERCE: Banque Impériale Ottoamane established to function as Turkey’s central bank.
1865   CESSATION: Khanate of Kokand liquidated by Russia.
1869   EXPULSION: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt.
1871   Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Ottoman Empire through a firman.
1873   Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia.
1876   COMMERCE: Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got involved in Egyptian affairs.
  MONARCHY: Constitutional monarchy in Ottoman Empire (Turkey)(first phase)
1878   Conference of Berlin. Ottoman Empire loses territories to Russia or Balkan countries
  Ottoman Empire handed over Cyprus to Britain.
1879   Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Egypt.
  TREATY: Treaty of Berlin.
  Ottoman lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe.
1881   INVASIONS: France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo.
  Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.
1882   OCCUPATION: Egypt came under British military occupation.
1883   Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.
1885   GOVERNMENT: Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule.
  Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartoum.
1890   CESSATION: End of the Toucouleur Empire.
1889   Shah Jahan Mosque opened in Woking (England).
1891   Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi, and thus laid the foundation of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam But All scholars of Muslim world especially Indian announce Ghulam Ahmad as fake personality and latterly Parliament of Pakistan declared followers of Ahmadiya movement as non- Muslims.
1895   Afghanistan got Wakhan Corridor by an understanding with Russia
  British India making Afghan border touch China.
1897   OCCUPATION: State of Bagirimi occupied by the French.
1899   OCCUPATION: Fall of Muhammad Ahmad’s Mahdi State occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly. 
    By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 13 percent of the total.


Timeline of Islamic history: 6th | 7th | 8th | 9th | 10th | 11th | 12th | 13th | 14th | 15th | 16th | 17th | 18th | 19th | 20th | 21st century

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