ME: Contemporary Middle East

Timeline of Middle Eastern history.

Contemporary Middle East
2nd millennium CE
1798   CAMPAIGN: Napoleon Bonaparte leads a campaign in Egypt and Syria 
1828 1908   Decline of the Ottoman Empire 
1869     Construction of the Suez Canal is completed 
1882   OCCUPATION: British troops occupy Cairo – Egypt becomes British protectorate 
1908 1922 DEFEAT:  Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 
1917   DECLARATION: Lord Balfour, Foreign Minister of Great Britain, in letter to Lord Rothschild, gives British government approval to Zionist’s goal of building a “national home” in Palestine 
1918   OCCUPATION: Britain and France occupy former Ottoman Empire lands 
1919 1921 WAR: Franco-Syrian War 
1919 1923   Asia Minor Catastrophe reshapes Anatolia, as continuous fighting incorporates the newly founded Republic of Turkey, Armenia, France, Greece 
1922   INDEPENDENCE: Egypt is granted nominal independence from the United Kingdom. 
1922 1923 MANDATE: French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon 
    MANDATE: British Mandate of Palestine
    MANDATE: Emirate of Transjordan is an autonomous region under the Mandate for Israel 
1924     Abolition of the Caliphate as part of Atatürk’s Reforms 
1925   REVOLT: Sheikh Said rebellion of Kurds against Turkey 
1927 1930 REVOLT: Ararat rebellion of Kurds
    REPUBLIC: Republic of Ararat is declared
    DEFEAT: Republic of Ararat dissolved upon defeat
1932   UNIFICATION: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia declared in unification of Najd and Hejaz 
1933 1936 REVOLT: Tribal revolts in Iraq of Assyrians in Simele, Shia in the south and Kurds in the north 
1934   WAR: Saudi-Yemeni War 
1935     Persia becomes Iran 
1937   REVOLT: Dersim rebellion, is the largest uprising of the Kurds against Turkey, massive casualties 
1939 1945   Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre 
1946     Emirate of Transjordan becomes Kingdom of Jordan (named Transjordan until 1948) 
1946   REVOLT: Kurdish Republic of Mahabad
    GOVERNMENT Azerbaijan People’s Government
    DEFEAT: Azerbaijan People’s Government, but defeated by Iranian military forces and dissolved 
1947   TWO STATE SOLUTION UN General Assembly proposes to divide Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state 
1948   INDEPENDENCE: Israel declares independence  Flag_of_Israel.svg
    WAR: Arab-Israeli war erupts 
1862 1892 ACADEMIA: Development of the internal combustion engine rivals the steam engine, and ultimately makes petroleum an important political factor in the following century 
1952   REVOLT: After a revolution in Egypt the monarchy is overthrown 
1953   COUP: The coup d’état in Iran 
1954     Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes president of Egypt 
1954   TREATY: Central Treaty Organization 
1956     Suez Crisis 
1961   WAR: First Kurdish-Iraqi War erupts in north Iraq. 
1963     Ba’th Party comes to power in Iraq under the leadership of General Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif 
1964   COUP: Abdul Rahman Arif stages military coup in Iraq against the Ba’th Party and brings his brother, Abdul Salam Arif, to power 
1967   WAR: Six-Day War, Flag_of_Israel.svg Israel occupies the Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, West Bank and Gaza Strip 
1967   REVOLT: Kurds revolt in Western Iran, the revolt is crushed 
1968   COUP: Ba’athists stage second military coup under General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Saddam Hussein is made vice president of Iraq 
1970     Gamal Abdel Nasser dies, Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt 
1971   INDEPENDENCE: The Aswan High Dam is completed with Soviet help in finance and construction
    INDEPENDENCE: Independence of Kuwait
    INDEPENDENCE: Independence of  Qatar
    INDEPENDENCE: Independence of  Bahrain
    INDEPENDENCE: Independence of  UAE 
1973   WAR:  Flag_of_Israel.svg Yom Kippur War 
1974     The PLO is allowed to represent the people of Palestine in the UN 
1974 1975 WAR: Second Kurdish-Iraqi War 
1975 1990 WAR: Lebanese Civil War 
1976   INVASIONS: Syria invades Lebanon 
1978   ACCORD: Camp David Accords 
1979     Saddam Hussein becomes president of Iraq
    REVOLT: Iranian Revolution
    TREATY: Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty Flag_of_Israel.svg
1980 1989 WAR: Iran–Iraq War results in 1–1.25 million casualties, Iraq uses chemical weapons against Iran and rebel Kurds; large scale economical devastation and surge in oil prices affect the global world economy 
1981   ASSASSINATION: Murder of Anwar Sadat 
1982   INVASIONS: Israel Flag_of_Israel.svg invades Lebanon 
1987 1990 INTIFADA: First Intifada 
1991   WAR: The Gulf War 
1993   ACCORD: Oslo Accords  Flag_of_Israel.svg
1994   WAR: 1994 civil war in Yemen 
3rd millennium CE
2000     Israeli troops leave Lebanon 
2001   TERROR ATTACKS: Members of al-Qaeda attacked sites in the U.S. 
2003   WAR: The 2003 Iraq War 
2004 Present   Shia insurgency in Yemen 
2005     Syrian troops leave Lebanon as a result of the Cedar Revolution 
2006     The 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict
    EXECUTION: Saddam Hussein executed for “crimes against humanity” 
2010   WAR: Arab Spring, which culminates in the Syrian Civil War with involvement of many regional powers to either support the Syrian opposition or the ruling Ba’ath party 
2014     ISIS rises in Iraq and Syria;rival groups try to overthrow Syrian president 




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