Specific Prophetic Movements and End Times
(Millerites) William Miller.
The Millerites were the followers of the teachings of William Miller,1)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Miller_(preacher). who in 1833 first shared publicly his belief that the Second Advent of Jesus Christ would occur in roughly the year 1843
Miller was a prosperous farmer, a Baptist lay preacher, and student of the Bible, living in northeastern New York. Miller spent years of intensive study of symbolic meaning of the prophecies of Daniel, especially Daniel 8:14 (Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed), the 2300 day prophecy.3)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2300_day_prophecy Miller believed that the cleansing of the sanctuary represented the Earth’s destruction by fire at Christ’s Second Coming. Using the year-day method of prophetic interpretation, Miller became convinced that the 2,300 day period started in 457 BC with the decree to rebuild Jerusalem by Artaxerxes I of Persia.4)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artaxerxes_I_of_Persia Simple calculation then indicated that this period would end about 1843. In September 1822, Miller formally stated his conclusions in a twenty-point document, including article 15, “I believe that the second coming of Jesus Christ is near, even at the door, even within twenty-one years,—on or before 1843.“ This document however, remained private for many years.
Miller did eventually share his views, first to a few friends privately and later to some ministerial acquaintances. Initially he was disappointed at the lack of response from those he spoke to. “To my astonishment, I found very few who listened with any interest. Occasionally, one would see the force of the evidence, but the great majority passed it by as an idle tale.“
Miller states that he began his public lecturing in the village of Dresden, Washington County, New York,5)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dresden,_Washington_County,_New_York some 16 miles from his home, on “the first Sabbath in August 1833.” However, as Sylvester Bliss6)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylvester_Bliss points out, “The printed article from which this is copied was written in 1845. By an examination of his correspondence, it appears that he must have begun to lecture in August 1831. So that this date is a mistake of the printer or an error in Mr. Miller’s memory.”
In 1832, Miller submitted a series of sixteen articles to the Vermont Telegraph—a Baptist paper. The first of these was published on May 15, and Miller writes of the public’s response, “I began to be flooded with letters of inquiry respecting my views, and visitors flocked to converse with me on the subject.“ In 1834, unable to personally comply with many of the urgent requests for information and the invitations to travel and preach that he received, Miller published a synopsis of his teachings in a “little tract of 64 pages.” These he “…scattered, the most of them gratuitously, sending them in reply to letters of inquiry and to places which I could not visit.“
Miller’s interpretation of the 2300 day prophecy time line and its relation to the 70 week prophecy
Beginning of the 70 Weeks: The decree of Artaxerxes in the 7th year of his reign (457 BC) as recorded in Ezra marks beginning of 70 weeks. Kings’ reigns were counted from New Year to New Year following an “Accession Year”.9)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerius_Coucke
The Persian New Year began in Nisan (March–April). The civil New Year in the Kingdom of Judah began in Tishri (September–October). 10)image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Miller_(preacher)#/media/File:Ezrachonology.jpg
Millerite prophetic time chart from 1843, about the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation.
Originally published by J. V. Himes. Scanned from P. Gerard Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh-day Adventist Message and Mission, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans (1977), p310. ISBN 0-8028-1698-3
The 1843 chart12)https://www.scribd.com/doc/46980457/The-Foundations-of-Adventism-1843-1850-Charts
Without a doubt, the 1843 chart is the result of the will of God. Ellen White expresses herself in this way: “I have seen that the 1843 chart was directed by the hand of the Lord, and that it should not be altered; that the figures were as He wanted them; that His hand was over and hid a mistake in some of the figures, so that none could see it, until His hand was removed.”13)Early Writings, 74–75.
God wanted that chart to be produced in exactly that time of history. Which purpose did the chart of 1843 have? This we may find in the writings of Ellen White:
1.) Prophecy should be illustrated:
“As early as 1842 the direction given in this prophecy to ‘write the vision, and make it plain upon tables, that he may run that readeth it,’ had suggested to Charles Fitch the preparation of a prophetic chart to illustrate the visions of Daniel and the Revelation. The publication of this chart was regarded as a fulfillment of the command given by Habakkuk.” GC, 392.
2.) Prophetic events were explained, and the actions of the “man of sin”, (the papacy) at the end of the world are shown.
“Historical events, showing the direct fulfillment of prophecy, were set before the people,and the prophecy was seen to be a figurative delineation of events leading down to the close of of this earth´s history. The scenes connected with the working of the man of sin are the last features plainly revealed in this earth’s history.The people now have a special message to give to the world, the third angel’s message…” 2SM, 102.
Post the failed prediction:
In September 1822, William Miller14)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Miller_(preacher). made the first of several predictions that the world would end on or before 1843. As his predictions did not come true (referred to as the Great Disappointment)15)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Disappointment, followers of Miller went on to found separate churches, the most successful of which is the Seventh-day Adventist Church.16)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church.17)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology
The Seventh-day Adventist Church holds a unique system of eschatological (or end-times) beliefs. Adventist eschatology, which is based on a historicist interpretation of prophecy, is characterised principally by the premillennial Second Coming of Christ. Traditionally, the church has taught that the Second Coming will be preceded by a global crisis with the Sabbath as a central issue. At Jesus’ return, the righteous will be taken to heaven for one thousand years. After the millennium the unsaved will be punished by annihilation while the saved will live on a recreated Earth for eternity.
The foremost sources are the biblical books of Daniel and Revelation. Jesus’ statements in Matthew 24 for instance, as well as many other Bible verses are also used. The classic Adventist commentary on the end-times was Uriah Smith’s Daniel and the Revelation. The writings of Ellen G. White have also been highly influential, particularly the last part of her book The Great Controversy. “Prophecy seminars”, developed since the mid-20th century, have been a key popular source.HISTORICIST INTERPRETATION OF PROPHECY:18)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Historicist_interpretation_of_prophecy
Prophecies of Daniel:19)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Prophecies_of_Daniel
Adventists teach that Historicism20)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historicism_(Christian_eschatology). (including the day-year principle)21)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Day-year_principle is the correct viewpoint in interpretation, as well as the traditional belief of the almost all Protestant Reformers. Historicism as a method of interpreting prophecy has been challenged by some interpreters.Image of Daniel 2:22)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Image_of_Daniel_2
The background to Adventist eschatology is found in the book of Daniel, which has strong thematic and literary links to Revelation. A key passage is the interpretation of king Nebuchadnezzar’s23)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebuchadrezzar_II vision of a statue in Daniel 2. The sequence of world kingdoms is interpreted by Adventists as representing in turn Babylonia, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome (pagan Rome and later papal Rome). The feet of iron and clay in the vision are understood to represent the nations of Europe subsequent to the breakup of the Roman empire.
The Seventh-day Adventists follow the Historicist interpretation of the statue.
The Seventh-day Adventists follow the Historicist interpretation of the statue.
|Daniel||Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by SDA Historicists|
|Two||Head||Chest & 2 Arms||Belly and Thighs||2 Legs||2 Feet||10 Toes||Rock|
|Gold||Silver||Bronze||Iron||Clay & Iron||Clay & Iron||God’s unending
kingdom left to no other people
|(Babylon)||(Media-Persia)||(Greece)||Roman Empire||Roman Empire||Respective|
|Western & Eastern||Frankish & Holy||Successors|
This interpretation is not unique to Adventists and was held by many expositors in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Since iron and clay are materials that cannot form a durable structure, Adventist scholars interpret this as the many short-lived attempts throughout European history to form a large empire such as the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleonic France, Nazi Germany, The European Union.24)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_UnionComparison of Daniel 2, 7 and 8:25)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Comparison_of_Daniel_2.2C_7_and_8
Comparison of Daniel 2, 7 and 8
|Daniel||Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by Historicists|
|Chpt: 2||Head||Chest & 2 Arms||Belly and Thighs||2 Legs||2 Feet with Toes||Rock|
|Gold||Silver||Bronze||Iron||Clay & Iron||God’s unending kingdom
left to no other people
|Chpt: 7||Winged||Lopsided||4 Headed
with Little Horn
|A son of man
comes in clouds
Given everlasting dominion
He gives it to the saints.
|Chpt: 8||2 Horned||Uni-4 horned||Little Horn||Cleansing of||(Kingdom of God)|
|4 Winds||A Master of Intrigue||Sanctuary|
|Ram||Goat||Leads to: >>>|
SDA historicist analysis of Daniel 11:26)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#SDA_historicist_analysis_of_Daniel_11
Comparison of Biblical text with history: Daniel 11: 2-4 Persia and Alexander the Great
vs.2 “And now, truth to be told. Look, Three more kings to be appointed in Persia,
Following Cyrus was:
(i) Cambyses II.27)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambyses_II
(ii) False Smerdis the Userper.28)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaumata
(iii) Darius the Great.29)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darius_I
And then a fourth,vs.2 cont
(iv) Xerxes I.30)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerxes_I 31)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#cite_note-FOOTNOTESwearingen200696-17
who will be far richer than all the others.vs.2 cont
Xerxes was richer than his predecessors.32)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#cite_note-livius-18
When he has gained power by his wealth, he will stir up everyone against the kingdom of Greece.vs.2 cont
Xerxes gathered a great army from his vast domains and waged war with Greece. He won at Thermopylae33)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Thermopylae in 480 BC and then sacked Athens, but suffered a disastrous defeat during the naval campaign at Salamis.34)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Salamis The next year the Greeks drove the Persians out of Greece forever at the battle of Plataea35)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Plataea
vs.3 “Then a mighty king will arise,
The mighty king is Alexander the Great.36)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great
who will rule with great power vs.3 cont
Mighty king, or literally, a warrior king, which is how he gained his fabulous power to rule.
and do as he pleases. vs.3 cont
His hearts desire was to launch an all-out invasion of the Greek arch rival Persia.
vs.4 “After he has arisen,
Or, While he was yet rising… he died.
his empire will be broken up vs.4 cont
His unexpected death at 33 in 323 BC caused the vast empire to experience several years of political instability because he never arranged for a successor. The power vacuum produced a considerable amount of internal conflict for control between his immediate family, the Macedonian nobility, and several generals.
and parceled out toward the four winds of heaven. vs.4 cont
Antigonus the One-Eyed37)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigonus_I_Monophthalmus tried to bring the empire under his control, but at the famous battle of Ipsus38)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ipsus (301 B.C.), Cassander,39)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassander Lysimachus,40)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysimachus Seleucus41)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_I_Nicator and Ptolemy42)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_I_Soter defeated him. Cassander claimed Greece and Macedonia. Lysimachus ruled Thrace and Asia Minor. Selucus had N. Syria, Mesopotamia and eastern territories. Ptolemy took S. Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. W-N-E-S.
It will not go to his descendants, vs.4 cont
Alexander’s mentally challenged half brother Arrhidaeus43)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_III_of_Macedon was to be crowned Philip III, but Alexander’s mother Olympias44)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympias murdered him in 317 BC. Cassander murdered Alexander IV,45)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_IV_of_Macedon Alxander’s son by Roxanne,46)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roxana in 310 BC.
nor will it have the power he exercised, vs.4 cont
By 276 BC, Alexander’s vast empire was partitioned into 3 warring segments, Antigonid Macedonia, Seleucid Syria, and Ptolemaic Egypt.
because his empire will be uprooted and given to others. vs.4 cont
Neither the founder nor his children could hold on to the power and riches.
Comparison of Biblical text with history: Daniel 11: 5 – 15; Kings of North and South
vs.5 “The king of the South will become strong,
Ptolemy I Soter47)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_I_Soter chose Egypt because of its isolation from potential hostilities and because it possess excellent natural defenses. After easily consolidating his rule he was able to build his power.
but one of his commanders vs.5 cont
In 316 BC, Ptolemy I Soter offered asylum to Seleucus I Nicator48)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_I_Nicator when he was chased out of Babylon by Demetrius,49)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demetrius_I_of_Macedon giving him a commission as commander of the Egyptian naval forces.
will become even stronger than he and will rule his own kingdom with great power. vs.5 cont
In 312 BC, Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated Demetrius at Gaza, which allowed Seleucus to return to Babylon. Then in 281 BC, Seleucus defeated Lysimachus50)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysimachus in the Battle of Corupedium,51)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Corupedium winning him the whole of Alexander’s conquests but for Egypt.
vs.6 “after some years,
Ptolemy II Philadelphus52)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_II_Philadelphus started the “First Syrian War”53)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars#First_Syrian_War_.28274_.E2.80.93_271_BC.29 (276-271 BC) with a first-strike attack on Antiochus I Soter54)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_I_Soter to prevent revenge for his father’s murder by Ptolemy’s brother.
Then Antiochus II Theos55)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_II_Theos launched the “Second Syrian War”56)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars#Second_Syrian_War_.28260_.E2.80.93_253_BC.29 (261-252 BC) to recover lost territories.
they will become allies. vs.6 cont
Tiring of war the two kings sued for peace in 252 BC.
The daughter of the king of the South will go to the king of the North to make an alliance, vs.6 cont
In 252 BC, Ptolemy II offered his daughter Berenice57)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenice_(Seleucid_queen). in marriage to Antiochus II, who divorced his wife Laodice58)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laodice_I and exiled her and her two sons.
but she will not retain her power, and he and his power will not last. In those days she will be betrayed, together with her royal escort, her child and the one who supported her. vs.6 cont
On January 28 246 BC, Ptolemy II died, and was succeeded by Ptolemy III Euergetes.59)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_III_Euergetes Antiochus II then betrayed Berenice and returned to Laodice. He named his first son with Laodice, Seleucus II Callinicus60)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_II_Callinicus as his successor to the throne.
In July 246 BC, Laodice poisoned Antiochus II and then murdered Berenice and her son later that summer.
vs.7 One from her family line shall arise in his place, he will fight against them and be victorious.
In 246 BC, Ptolemy III, hearing that his sister Berenice was threatened by Laodice, marched against Syria. But he arrived too late, so he proceeded to invade Syria (known as The Third Syrian61)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars#Third_Syrian_War_.28246_.E2.80.93_241_BC.29 or Laodicean War (246-240 BC).) He might have completed a total conquest had it not been for a homeland rebellion.
vs.8 He will also seize their gods, their metal images and their valuable articles of silver and gold and carry them off to Egypt.
Ptolemy III captured Antioch and Babylon and brought back with him Egyptian idols and gods that the Persian has stolen many years before.
and he shall continue more years than the king of the North. vs.8 cont
Ptolemy III died in 221 BC, five years after Seleucus II, who died in 226 BC. Ptolemy III died in 221 BC.
vs.9 Then the king of the North will invade the realm of the king of the South but will retreat to his own country.
As Ptolemy III retreated back to Egypt, Seleucus II regained most of his territory, yet failed to win Coele Syria (Palestine) in a disastrous defeat. Thus, in 240 BC, the Third Syrian War came to an end.
vs.10 His sons will prepare for war and assemble a great army, which will sweep on like an irresistible flood and carry the battle as far as his fortress.
After short-tempered Selecus III Ceraunus Sotor62)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_III_Ceraunus was poisoned by his military officers, his brother Antiochus III Magnus63)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_III_the_Great continued to assemble a great army. He launched the Fourth Syrian War64)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars#Fourth_Syrian_War_.28219_.E2.80.93_217_BC.29 in 219 BC and was so successful that he recaptured Coele Syria, neutralized the Egyptian Navy and demoralized the army.
vs.11 Then the king of the South will march out in a rage and fight against the king of the North, and he shall send out a great multitude,
But Antiochus III Magnus became distracted by troubles in Babylon and failed to capitalize on his success. This gave Ptolemy IV Philopator65)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_IV_Philopator enough time to regroup with an army greater than Antiochus III. They met at Raphia south of Gaza in 217 BC.
and the multitude shall be given into his hand. vs.11 cont
vs.12 The army will be carried off and the king of the South will be filled with pride and will slaughter many thousands, but he shall not prevail.
After the cavalry on both sides neutralized each other, the infantry decided the outcome. Ptolemy IV won the day, but rather than invade Syria and make great gains, he was content with just retaking Coele Syria and then returned home, ending the war.
vs.13 The king of the north shall return, and shall send out a multitude greater than the former; and after several years, he will advance with a huge army fully equipped.
From 212 to 204 Antiochus III regrouped his military in preparation for another war against Egypt. By starting the “Fifth Syrian War”66)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars#Fifth_Syrian_War_.28202_.E2.80.93_195_BC.29 (202-195 BC) through an invasion of southern Syria, the seizure of Gaza and occupation of Palestine, Antiochus III desired to pulverize the 5 year old Ptolemy V Epiphanes67)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_V_Epiphanes with an invasion of Egypt. But after the Battle of Panium68)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Panium in 200 BC, Roman emissaries demanded that Antiochus refrain from invading Egypt and disrupting the export of grain from Egypt to Italy. Declaring he had never planned to invade Egypt anyway, Antiochus acceded to their demands.
vs.14 “In those times many will rise against the king of the South.
The death of Ptolemy IV in 204 BC was followed by a bloody conflict over the regency since his heir, Ptolemy V, was just a child. The conflict began with the murder of the dead king’s wife Arsinoë69)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsinoe_III_of_Egypt by the ministers Agothocles70)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agathocles_of_Egypt and Sosibius.71)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sosibius Agothocles held the regency until he was lynched by the volatile Alexandrian mob. The regency was passed from one adviser to another, and the kingdom was in a state of near anarchy. After the Fifth Syrian War in 195 BC, Antiochus III gave Cleopatra Sotor72)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleopatra_I_Syra as wife to Ptolemy V.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes73)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes invaded Egypt unopposed twice, sometimes called the “Sixth Syrian War,74)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars#Sixth_Syrian_War_.28170_.E2.80.93_168_BC.29” beginning in 170 BC. But while in Alexandria in 168 BC, Roman emissary Gaius Popillius Laenas took his staff and drew a circle on the ground around the feet of Antiochus IV ordering him to evacuate Egypt at once. He was not allowed to step outside the circle until he had acquiesced to Rome’s demands. Antiochus IV withdrew under escort of the Roman Ambassadors out of Egypt.
And the tyrant over your people will exalt himself in fulfillment of the vision, but he shall fall. vs.14 cont
vs.15 So the king of the North shall come and build a siege mound, and take a fortified city; The forces of the South will be powerless to resist; neither the chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to stand.
Utterly humiliated by Rome, Antiochus IV became infuriated when he heard that Jerusalem had sided with Ptolemy. In desperate need of funds, he exacted revenge by stripping the sanctuary of all is treasures and plundering the resources of the city and murdering thousand and selling into slavery thousands more (168-167 BC). He passed an edict to ban Judaism and enforce Hellenism by erecting pagan altars and instituting pagan sacrifices in the process. He desired to totally eradicated the Jewish culture and religion.
But his plans eventually backfired by provoking a Jewish revolt under the leadership of Judas Maccabaeus that resulted in the complete removal of the Seleucid power (141 BC).
Comparison of Biblical text with history: Daniel 11: 16 – 24; King of the North
vs.16 But he who comes against him shall do according to his own will, and no one shall stand against him.
In 66 BC Antiochus XIII75)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_XIII requested help in establishing his rule over Syria, instead Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus,76)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnaeus_Pompeius_Magnus Pompey, decided to end the Seleucid dynasty and turn Syria into a Roman province (66-63 BC) Thus Rome became the King of the North.
He shall stand in the Glorious Land and will have the power to destroy it. vs.16 cont
Hyrcanus II77)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyrcanus_II and Aristobulus II78)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristobulus_II were engaged in a struggle for the throne over Judea. They both appealed to Pompey for support. While Pompey postponed a decision, Aristobulus made plans to war with Rome. When Pompey moved to deal with him, Aristobulus attempted to make peace.
But Aristobulus again rebelled while in Jerusalam, and again Pompey moved to deal with him. Again Aristobulus sued for peace, but his supporters spurned Pompey’s commander. So, with Hyrcanus’s help getting into Jerusalem, Pompey captured the temple where Aristobulus and his followers had fled (63 BC).
While Pompey didn’t destroy the temple, he slaughtered 12,000 Jewish rebels, flattened the city walls and put Hyrcanus in as High Priest.
vs.17 He shall set his face to come with the strength of his whole kingdom,
In 48 BC, Julius Caesar79)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar landed in Egypt shortly after Pompey, who was fleeing from him after the Battle of Pharsalus,80)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Pharsalus was assassinated by Egyptians authorities. Caesar was faced with the great prospect of bringing the last remaining Hellenistic kingdom under Roman control and thus becoming the King of the South also.
and with him equitable conditions; and he shall perform them: And he shall give him the daughter of women, then corrupt her; vs.17 cont
After taking up residence in the royal palace at Alexandria, Caesar reconciled Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator81)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_XIII_Theos_Philopator with his wife Cleopatra82)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleopatra making them joint rulers. But Caesar made Cleopatra his mistress (corrupting her) as a show of power.
And she shall not stand with him, or be for him. vs.17 cont
Cleopatra was in Rome when Caesar was assassinated. She did nothing or could do nothing to stop the murder.
vs.18 Then he will turn his attention to the coastlands and will take many of them,
Caesar turned his attention to destroying forces that had supported Pompey in lands surrounding the Mediterranean. He won at the Battle of Zela83)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Zela (47 BC), in modern Turkey, the Battle of Thapsus84)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Thapsus (46 BC)in modern Tunisa and the Battle of Munda85)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Munda (46 BC) in Spain.
but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. vs.18 cont
While serving as Tribune during Caesar’s absence (49 BC), Marcus Antonius86)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Antonius vetoed a decree that Caesar was to either disband his troupes and return to Rome as a private citizen or be declared an outlaw.
The senate illegally suspended his tribunal power and took legal action against him. Caesar’s reproach fell on Antony. But he caused this reproach to cease by hunting down Caesar’s assassins (42 BC).
vs.19 After this, he will turn back toward the refuge of his own country but will stumble and fall, to be seen no more.
While back is Rome, preparing for the next conquests, a crowd of senators fatally stabbed Caesar in Pompey’s Theatre on March 15, 44 BC.
vs.20 His successor will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor. After many years, however, he will be destroyed, yet not in anger or in battle.
Gaius Octavian (Caesar Augustus)87)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesar_Augustus succeeded Julius Caesar. He set up a taxation system that greatly benefited Rome. He died at the age of 75 in bed. (14 AD)
vs.21 He will be succeeded by a contemptible person who has not been given the honor of royalty.
Tiberius Julius Caesar88)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiberius was not born of royalty, but rather of a nobel Patrician. But his mother married Augustus, making Tiberius a step son. Being one of several possible heirs, Tiberius drew the contempt of Augustus by retiring from civic duty (6 BC).
And he was disliked by, and disliked in return, the senate and the people in general.
but he shall come in peaceably, and shall obtain the kingdom by flatteries. vs.21 cont
He ascended to emperor-ship peacefully in a natural succession following the death of Augustus (14 BC) and by receiving a fabricated and artificial flattery from the Roman senate.
vs.22 With the force of a flood they shall be swept away from before him and be broken,
Many hundreds of people were swiftly executed because of Tiberius’ irrational fear of conspiracies.
yes, also the prince of the covenant. vs.22 cont
Jesus was born in Bethlehem because of the taxes of Augustus. (Luke 2:1-5) John the Baptist and Jesus both began their ministry in 27 AD which was the 15th year of Tiberius. (John 3:1, 21) Jesus was accused of sedition against Tiberius Caesar (Luke 23:2, John 19:12-15) and was accordingly swiftly executed by Pontius Pilate89)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontius_Pilate in 31 AD.
vs.23 After he has joined himself with them he shall act deceitfully.
For the first 7 months, Caligula90)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caligula was described as the first emperor who was admired by everyone in “all the world, from the rising to the setting sun.” Caligula was loved by many for being the beloved son of the popular Germanicus,91)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanicus and because he was not Tiberius.92)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiberius
To gain support, he granted bonuses to those in the military including the Praetorian Guard,93)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Praetorian_Guard city troops and the army outside Italy. He destroyed Tiberius’s treason papers, declared that treason trials were a thing of the past, and recalled those who had been sent into exile.
But, in October 37 AD, Caligula fell seriously ill, or was poisoned. He recovered from his illness, but the young emperor had changed. He became diabolical, full of cruelty, sadism, extravagance, and sexual perversity. He was as an insane tyrant.
But another will stand in his place and with only a few people he will rise to power. vs.23 cont
In early AD 41, Caligula was assassinated, by officers of the Praetorian Guard,94)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Praetorian_Guard senators, and courtiers. A Praetorian named Gratus95)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gratus found Claudius96)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudius hiding behind a curtain and declared him princeps.97)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princeps He was spirited away to the Praetorian camp and put under their protection where they proclaimed him Emperor.
vs.24 He shall enter peaceably, even into the richest of the provinces;
Under Claudius, after achieving the throne peaceably, the Empire underwent its first major expansion since the reign of Augustus. The provinces of Thrace,98)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrace Noricum,99)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noricum Pamphylia,100)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamphylia Lycia,101)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lycia and Judea were annexed (or put under direct rule) under various circumstances during his term.
The annexation of Mauretania,102)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mauretania begun under Caligula, was completed after the defeat of rebel forces, and the official division of the former client kingdom into two Imperial provinces. The most far-reaching conquest was the conquest of Britannia.103)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_conquest_of_Britain
In traditional mainstream Adventist teaching, the end times consists of four distinct episodes:
The Roman Empire was a world power active during the ministry of Jesus. Adventists believe the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 was a partial fulfillment of Jesus’ end-times discourse in Matthew 24.
The empire continued several centuries into the Christian era, when it was ultimately replaced by the papacy. The papacy is identified with the “man of sin” of 2 Thessalonians, the “Antichrist” of 1 John and the “little horn” of Daniel chapters 7 and 8. It is believed that the Roman Catholic religion grew into a corruption of original, authentic Christianity. Among other things, it is considered to have changed the church’s day of worship from Saturday to Sunday.
The “1260 days”, “42 months” or “time, times and dividing of time” of apocalyptic prophecy are equated, and are interpreted as 1260 years, based on the day-year principle. This has traditionally been held to be the period AD 538 to 1798, as the era of papal supremacy and oppression as prophesied in Revelation 12:6, 14-16. This period began with the defeat of the Ostrogoths107)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostrogoths by the Roman General Belisarius.108)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belisarius In Adventist belief, this was the last of three Germanic tribes (including also the Heruli109)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heruli and the Vandals) to be defeated by Rome (see Daniel 7:20, Daniel 7:24 and other passages). The period ended with the successes of Napoleon of France; specifically, the capture of Pope Pius VI110)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Pius_VI by General Louis Alexandre Berthier111)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Alexandre_Berthier in 1798, which was a blow to the papacy. This capture of the pope by the French army was understood as the “deadly wound” of Revelation 13:3. Today many Adventist scholars believe the end-points cannot be given precisely, because the history was more of a gradual rise and fall; however the mainstream view does support a period of 1260 years. A minority view by Samuele Bacchiocchi is that the rise to “supremacy” and the “downfall” of the papacy are events spanning a larger time, and cannot be pinned to such points in time.
After the end of the 1260 days, and prior to 1844, several significant events took place. In 1755 a massive earthquake hit Lisbon. On May 19, 1780, northeastern America experienced a day of extraordinary darkness followed by a blood-red moon that night. On November 13, 1833, a spectacular Leonids112)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonids meteor shower occurred. These three events were thought to be a fulfillment of Revelation 6:12, paving the way for the final events of history.Three angels’ messages:113)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Three_angels.27_messages
During the 1830s and 1840s the Millerite movement proclaimed the soon return of Jesus. Adventists have traditionally interpreted this as the initial proclamation of the three angels’ messages.114)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_angels%27_messagesThe Investigative judgment:115)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#The_Investigative_judgment
The investigative judgment116)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Investigative_judgment commenced in 1844 “at the end of the prophetic period of 2300 days”. During this time, Jesus Christ is believed to be ministering in the Most Holy Place of the heavenly sanctuary,117)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavenly_sanctuary “blotting out” the sins of all who are found to truly believe in him.
Meanwhile, on earth, the remnant church proclaims the “three angels’ messages”118)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_angels%27_messages of Revelation 14; it “announces the arrival of the judgment hour, proclaims salvation through Christ, and heralds the approach of His second advent.” As a result, there is “a work of repentance and reform on earth.”
The completion of the investigative judgment119)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Investigative_judgment marks the “close of probation”. In Adventist teaching, this is a crucial moment when sinners will no longer be able to repent and be forgiven, because Christ will have ceased his intercessory ministry.
Then Jesus ceases His intercession in the sanctuary above. He lifts His hands and with a loud voice says, “It is done;” and all the angelic host lay off their crowns as He makes the solemn announcement: “He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still.” Revelation 22:11. Every case has been decided for life or death.”
Following the close of probation will be a “time of trouble,” a brief but intense period of time immediately preceding the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Adventists believe the Roman Catholic Church will return to prominence during the end times, fulfilling the prophecy of the first beast of Revelation 13 (the leopard-like beast from the sea) whose “deadly wound” (i.e. the deposal of the Pope in 1798) will be healed.
The United States of America, meanwhile, will establish ties with the Papacy, in fulfilment of the second beast of Revelation 13 (the lamb-like beast from the earth). Some of the more liberal Adventists do not share these convictions about the Roman Catholic Church, or are more cautious. (J. N. Andrews was the first Adventist to identify America in prophecy, in 1851).
Ultimately, the Protestant churches of America will join the confederation between the beasts, forming the “image to the beast” (Revelation 13:14-15). At this time, a conflict will ensue that will “involve the whole world,” and in which “the central issue will be obedience to God’s law and the observance of the Sabbath.” Religious and civil authorities will combine to enact a “Sunday law” which requires all people to observe Sunday as a sacred day. The “Sunday law” is interpreted as the meaning of the “mark of the beast” described in Revelation 13:16-17.
In contrast to those who choose to obey the “Sunday law,” and therefore receive the “mark of the beast,” people who observe the seventh-day Sabbath will receive the “Seal of God” (mentioned in Revelation 7:2 ff.). Sabbath keepers will experience fierce persecution from world governments, which will include economic coercion and ultimately the death penalty.
As the Sabbath has become the special point of controversy throughout Christendom, and religious and secular authorities have combined to enforce the observance of the Sunday, the persistent refusal of a small minority to yield to the popular demand will make them objects of universal execration. It will be urged that the few who stand in opposition to an institution of the church and a law of the state ought not to be tolerated; that it is better for them to suffer than for whole nations to be thrown into confusion and lawlessness. … This argument will appear conclusive; and a decree will finally be issued against those who hallow the Sabbath of the fourth commandment, denouncing them as deserving of the severest punishment and giving the people liberty, after a certain time, to put them to death. Romanism in the Old World and apostate Protestantism in the New will pursue a similar course toward those who honor all the divine precepts.
Despite being almost overwhelmed by persecution, the people of God will be delivered by the second coming of Jesus Christ, when he returns to earth in glory.
The “time of trouble” has also been known as the “Time of Jacob’s Trouble,” described as “a brief period of extreme tribulation” just before the Second Coming, and after the close of probation. It is contemporaneous with the seven last plagues. The term comes from Jeremiah 30:7, and is based on the narrative of Jacob’s wrestling with God in Genesis 32:22-30, and Jeremiah’s description of Israel’s captivity in Babylonia prior to the predicted liberation in Jeremiah 30 verses 3, 7–9, 11.
Recent arguments claim an allusion from Revelation 14:7 in the three angels’ messages to Exodus 20:11 in the fourth Ten Commandments. Thus in the end time, the battle over worship will include the Sabbath.The Second Coming:121)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#The_Second_Coming
Seventh-day Adventists believe the Second Coming of Jesus will be literal, personal, sudden and universally visible. The second coming coincides with the resurrection and translation of the righteous, as described in 1 Thessalonians 4:16. (See fundamental belief number 25.)122)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/28_Fundamental_Beliefs
Adventists reject an intermediate state123)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermediate_state between death and resurrection, and hold that the soul sleeps124)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soul_sleep#.22Soul_sleep.22 until the resurrection of the body at Christ’s coming. They also reject the doctrine of the pretribulational rapture.125)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapture
The Seventh-day Adventist Church does not hold the traditional view of the premillennial126)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premillennial and none of the postmillennial127)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmillennial schools of end-time belief. As both of these schools believe that Christ will literally and physically be on the earth at his second coming.
In contrast to this Adventism teaches that the righteous will rise up and meet Christ in the air at His second coming and are taken with Him to Heaven.The Millennium:128)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#The_Millennium
The Second Coming of Jesus Christ marks the beginning of the Millennium, according to Adventist teaching. At the second coming, the righteous dead will be resurrected (the “first resurrection”, Revelation 20:5), and both they and the righteous living will be taken to heaven to reign with Christ for 1000 years. The rest of mankind (the wicked, or unrighteous) will be killed at the second coming, leaving the earth devoid of human life.
During the millennium, Satan and his angels will occupy the desolate earth; this is how Adventists interpret the “binding” of Satan described in chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation. The millennium will be the time when the wicked will be judged. Satan and his angels will be loosed at the end of the millennium when the wicked, or unrighteous are brought back to life to face judgement.The destruction of sinners and new earth:129)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#The_destruction_of_sinners_and_new_earth
At the close of the Millennium, Adventists believe that Christ will again return to earth together with the righteous and the “Holy City” (the New Jerusalem, Revelation 21:10) to implement His judgment on the wicked. He will then raise the wicked (the “second resurrection”), who will surround the New Jerusalem along with Satan.
At this point Satan, his angels, and wicked humanity will suffer annihilation130)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annihilationism in the Lake of Fire131)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_of_Fire (“the second death”, Revelation 20:8). Adventists disagree with the traditional doctrine of hell as a place of conscious eternal punishment.
Finally, God will create a new earth where the redeemed will enjoy eternal life free of sin and suffering.ADDITIONAL INTERPRETATIONS:132)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Additional_interpretations
Ellen White’s book (The Great Controversy)133)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Controversy_(book). has been a frequent evangelistic handout. While much of it presents Christian and Adventist church history, the later chapters describe end-time events. Her views expressed in the book represent the mainstream opinion in Adventism. Some alternative views about eschatology have been proposed by individuals and groups in the Adventist church.
Critics have written on issues regarding the book The Great Controversy.
One critic has stated “There can be little doubt that the Roman church courted much of the antagonism it received.” “incredibly arrogant and contemptuous of democratic principles.” in U.S. “The Roman Catholic Church of those days was a contemptuous and contemptible organization, rightly perceived as a threat to the nation and the world.”
“But those days are over. The world has changed. The United States has changed. And even the Roman Catholic church has changed, in the second half of our century, having reconciled itself with progress, liberalism and modern civilization. It is no longer the Bible-suppressing, science-resisting, liberty-opposing, Protestant-hating, culture-ignoring, Latin mumbling, obscurantism-loving ecclesiastical organization of former years, intent on ruling the world from Rome. Vatican Council II transformed all that.”
However Ellen White stated…
The Roman Church now presents a fair front to the world, covering with apologies her record of horrible cruelties. She has clothed herself in Christlike garments; but she is unchanged. Every principle of the papacy that existed in past ages exists today. The doctrines devised in the darkest ages are still held. Let none deceive themselves. The papacy that Protestants are now so ready to honor is the same that ruled the world in the days of the Reformation, when men of God stood up, at the peril of their lives, to expose her iniquity. She possesses the same pride and arrogant assumption that lorded it over kings and princes, and claimed the prerogatives of God. Her spirit is no less cruel and despotic now than when she crushed out human liberty and slew the saints of the Most High.
Opinions vary in regards to this topic.Prophetic interpretation of Revelation:134)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Prophetic_interpretation_of_Revelation
Traditionally, Adventists interpret the letters to the seven churches of Asia135)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_churches_of_Asia in Revelation 2 and 3 as fulfilled in consecutive periods of church history.
According to mainstream Adventist thought, prophecies usually have only a single fulfillment. For instance Gerhard Hasel136)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerhard_Hasel argued apocalyptic prophecy has only “one fulfillment for each symbol.” “General” or “classical” prophecy may have dual or multiple fulfillment’s only if Scripture itself points to this, for instance with the virgin birth (Isaiah 7:14 / Matthew 1:22–23), and the latter rain (Joel 2 / Acts 2).
In contrast, a minority have argued for multiple fulfillment’s of other prophecies. Some Progressive Adventists137)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Adventism advocate multiple diverse possible fulfillment’s of prophecy, and some try to include Antiochus IV Epiphanes,138)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes the Seleucid king who conquered Israel, as a preliminary fulfillment. Most Adventists disagree with this.
The themes of Revelation are heavily grounded in the Old Testament, so Adventist scholarship first looks to this background before attempting interpretation. The context and overall literary structure are important for interpretation.
For instance Revelation is not always chronological (e.g. Jesus’ death in Revelation 12:10,11 cannot follow 11:15 where He reigns; and Babylon’s activities in chapter 17 cannot follow its destruction in chapter 16), but many visions are parallel, and progressively illuminate themes.
In addition to parallels, there are contrasts such as the Lamb and the beast; and the seal of God and the mark of the beast. Revelation shows a typological connection between ancient Israel’s history, and church history.Cosmic signs:139)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Cosmic_signs
Great cosmic signs have traditionally been interpreted as the fulfillment of Bible prophecy and signs of the nearing Second Coming, such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake140)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1755_Lisbon_earthquake in Portugal, New England’s Dark Day141)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_England%27s_Dark_Day of 1780, and a spectacular meteor shower142)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_shower in 1833.
This is based on the sixth seal (Revelation 6:12–17) of the “seven seals”, and Jesus’ end-times sermon in Matthew 24:29 and Mark 13:24–25 (see also Luke 21). Adventists had argued the Dark Day was a supernatural sign. Critics claim that it occurred from natural causes due to forest fires. The interpretations are still commonly held by Adventist, although some have challenged the interpretations.
Some state there were bigger earthquakes before Lisbon. Still, they remain highly significant events in history. They believe people were led to God, and these are preliminary signs, but not the ultimate cosmic signs bring in the Second Coming.
Many believe their occurrence towards the end of papal supremacy (1798) is significant, and that the order of events matches the biblical prediction. Some believe the context of Jesus’ end-times sermon indicates the period stretches from the destruction of Jerusalem (70AD) to the seven last plagues prior to the Second Coming.
Jon Paulien claims they are signs of the age, not signs of the end; they do instruct us to keep watch. The events are the “day of the Lord” foretold in Old Testament prophecy.Spiritualism:143)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Spiritualism
Ellen White was critical of spiritualism144)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritualism (which she believed to be communication with evil spirits)145)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demon. Many Adventists see the spreading social acceptance of the belief in evil spirits and their powers such as in witchcraft, the occult, as evidenced in the prominent films, books, and society along with the spread of Spiritual Formation146)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritual_formation in modern-day churches, and the acceptance of communicating with spirits in modern-day churches in Montanism147)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montanism style movements which have emerged from late 19th century as an indication of the fulfillment of the prediction.World empires:148)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#World_empires
The traditional teaching is that Rome was the last world empire prophesied in Daniel 2 and 7, which divides up into the nations of Europe. On the other hand, one historian claimed several subsequent empires which have been larger, including the Byzantine, Arab and Ottoman empires.
Adventists predicted that in WWII, Hitler’s forces would not conquer Europe, based on Daniel 2:43 which states the toes of the statue [interpreted as the nations of Europe] would not remain united.Ottoman Empire:149)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Ottoman_Empire
(In 1838, Millerite preacher Josiah Litch150)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josiah_Litch had predicted the fall of the Ottoman Empire151)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire in August 1840, based on Revelation 9. This was regarded as being fulfilled on August 11, 1840, when Turkey responded to an ultimatum by European powers, which affirmed the Millerites’ beliefs. [Note this during the Millerite movement before the start of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, which Litch did not become a member of].)New World Order:152)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#New_World_Order
Eschatological expectations have prompted some Adventists to closely observe current geopolitical events, in a manner similar to many Christian futurists and dispensationalists. Illinois pastor A. Jan Marcussen153)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._Jan_Marcussen has predicted the imminent rise of a global church-state alliance with the Papacy and U.S. Government as key players, along with other bodies such as the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund.154)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Monetary_Fund The resulting New World Order155)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_World_Order_(conspiracy_theory). would precipitate the final events of history: the “sealing” of Sabbath-keepers, a universal Sunday-law, the seven last plagues and Armageddon.
“Not only does the Bible not predict one world government before the kingdom of God; it denies it. “Just as you saw that the feet and toes were partly of baked clay and partly of iron, so this will be a divided kingdom” (Daniel 2:41). The Bible does however warn of “an alliance between church and state (see Revelation 17:3ff).”
“The prophecy of Revelation 13 declares that the power represented by the beast with lamblike horns shall cause “the earth and them which dwell therein” to worship the papacy—there symbolised by the beast “like unto a leopard.”
He was granted power to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak and cause as many as would not worship the image of the beast to be killed. He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.
The beast with two horns is also to say “to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast;” and, furthermore, it is to command all, “both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond,” to receive the mark of the beast. Revelation 13:11-16. It has been shown that the United States is the power represented by the beast with lamb like horns, and that this prophecy will be fulfilled when the United States shall enforce Sunday observance, which Rome claims as the special acknowledgement of her supremacy.
But in this homage to the papacy the United States will not be alone. The influence of Rome in the countries that once acknowledged her dominion is still far from being destroyed. And prophecy foretells a restoration of her power. “I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.” Verse 3.
The infliction of the deadly wound points to the downfall of the papacy in 1798. After this, says the prophet, “his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.” Paul states plainly that the “man of sin” will continue until the second advent. 2 Thessalonians 2:3-8.
To the very close of time he will carry forward the work of deception. And the revelator declares, also referring to the papacy: “All that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life.” Revelation 13:8. The papacy will receive homage in the honour paid to the Sunday institution, that rests solely upon the authority of the Roman Church.”Antichrist:156)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Antichrist
Seventh-day Adventists teach that the anti-Christ is the office of the papacy , which was so widely held by Protestants that they became known as the “Protestant view” of prophetic interpretation.
In 1798, the French General Berthier157)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Alexandre_Berthier exiled the Pope and took away all his authority, which was later restored in 1929. This is taken as a fulfillment of the prophecy that the Beast of Revelation would receive a deadly wound but that the wound would be healed.
Adventists have attributed the wounding and resurgence in Revelation 13:3 to the papacy, referring to General Louis Berthier’s158)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Alexandre_Berthier capture of Pope Pius VI159)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Pius_VI in 1798 and the pope’s subsequent death in 1799.
A minority view by Samuele Bacchiocchi has suggested expanding the antichrist concept to include also Islam. However the majority Adventist view today disagrees and holds to the traditional Adventist view of the Papacy as the Antichrist.Roman Catholicism:160)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Roman_Catholicism
Modern “mainstream” Adventist literature continues to express the traditional teaching that Roman Catholicism, in coalition with other churches, will perpetrate religious oppression during the final end time crisis, and that the Sabbath will be a key issue.
Seventh-day Adventists are convinced of the validity of our prophetic views, according to which humanity now lives close to the end of time. Adventists believe, on the basis of biblical predictions, that just prior to the second coming of Christ this earth will experience a period of unprecedented turmoil, with the seventh-day Sabbath as a focal point. In that context, we expect that world religions–including the major Christian bodies as key players–will align themselves with the forces in opposition to God and to the Sabbath. Once again the union of church and state will result in widespread religious oppression.
Some Adventists have interpreted the number of the beast, 666, as corresponding to the title Vicarius Filii Dei162)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicarius_Filii_Dei of the Pope. In 1866, Uriah Smith163)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uriah_Smith was the first to propose the interpretation to the Seventh-day Adventist Church. See Review and Herald 28:196, November 20, 1866.164)http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=11216 In The United States in the Light of Prophecy, he wrote,
The pope wears upon his pontifical crown in jeweled letters, this title: “Vicarius Filii Dei,” “Viceregent of the Son of God;” the numerical value of which title is just six hundred and sixty-six The most plausible supposition we have ever seen on this point is that here we find the number in question. It is the number of the beast, the papacy; it is the number of his name, for he adopts it as his distinctive title; it is the number of a man, for he who bears it is the “man of sin.”
Prominent Adventist scholar J. N. Andrews165)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._N._Andrews also adopted this view. Uriah Smith166)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uriah_Smith maintained his interpretation in the various editions of Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation, which was influential in the church. The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary167)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_Bible_Commentary states, “Whether the inscription Vicarius Filii Dei appears on the tiara or the mitre is really beside the point. The title is admittedly applied to the pope, and that is sufficient for the purposes of prophecy. Various documents from the Vatican contain wording such as “Adorandi Dei Filii Vicarius, et Procurator quibus numen aeternum summam Ecclesiae sanctae dedit“ Which as translated is “As the worshipful Son of God’s Vicar and Caretaker, to whom the eternal divine will has given the highest rank of the holy Church”.
Samuele Bacchiocchi168)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuele_Bacchiocchi an Adventist scholar, and only Adventist to be awarded a gold medal by Pope Paul VI169)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Paul_VI for the distinction of summa cum laude170)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summa_cum_laude (Latin for “with highest praise”). has documented the pope using such a title.
We noted that contrary to some Catholic sources who deny the use of Vicarius Filii Dei as a papal title, we have found this title to have been used in official Catholic documents to support the ecclesiastical authority and temporal sovereignty of the pope. Thus the charge that Adventists fabricated the title to support their prophetic interpretation of 666, is unfair and untrue.
Beliefs regarding this topic vary by individual.Sunday law:171)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Sunday_law
Traditionally, Adventists teach that right at the end times the message of the Ten Commandments and in particular the keeping of the seventh day of the week, Saturday, as Sabbath will be conveyed to the whole world and there will be a reaction from those who hold to Sunday as the day of worship.
Adventists have taught that a persecuting “Sunday law”172)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_law will be enacted at some stage in the future, as part of the final events of earth’s history before Jesus returns.
Stated in significant publications such as Questions on Doctrine173)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Questions_on_Doctrine (1957), Seventh-day Adventists Believe… (1988), and Ellen White’s classic The Great Controversy.174)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Controversy_(book). Jon Paulien175)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jon_Paulien has argued for a parallel between Revelation 14 and the fourth of the Ten Commandments (the Sabbath), in Exodus 20. He hence argues the Bible features Sabbath in the end-times.
Some progressive Adventists,176)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Adventism including a few scholars, disagree with specific traditional views about the “time of trouble.” and the coming Sunday Law177)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_lawsArmageddon:178)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Armageddon
Adventists believe in a future final battle prior to Jesus’ return.
This battle is termed “Armageddon” in Revelation 16:16, a term which occurs only once in the Bible. It derives from the Hebrew for “Mountain of Megiddo”, and occurs only in Revelation 16:16 in the Bible.
Modern Adventist scholarship believes it refers not to a physical battle in the Middle East, but is a metaphor for a spiritual battle. There is no mountain called “Megiddo”, but the city Megiddo, now ruined, lies in the Jezreel Valley, at the foot of Mount Carmel which was the site of Elijah’s conflict with the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18).
Based in this imagery, Armageddon is understood as a worldwide ‘spiritual’ battle – a battle for the mind. Paulien believes it is not literal fire, and not literally on Carmel, but likely false prophets and false Christs performing miracles in the world (Matthew 24:24).
The Euphrates river is equated with the “many waters” the prostitutes sits on, which the Bible identifies as peoples, multitudes, nations, and languages. Thus the drying of the river is the removal of the political powers supporting Babylon. (Earlier, Uriah Smith viewed the drying of the Euphrates river (Revelation 16:12) as the shrinking of Turkey, the nation occupying most of the river; however today this is Iraq. He saw Armageddon as a literal battle at Megiddo in Israel due to its strategic military location, and the three unclean spirits as spiritism.)SOURCES:179)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Sources
A “prophecy seminar” is a common form of outreach used by Adventist ministers, in which Bible prophecies such as those in the books of Daniel and Revelation are presented.
In 1969 George Knowles developed a small group seminar. He joined It Is Written,181)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/It_Is_Written and together with George Vandeman182)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Vandeman prepared a day-long seminar, which developed into the It Is Written Revelation Seminar by 1975. Soon others ran their own seminars. A resource center founded in Texas in 1980 was named Seminars Unlimited in 1986, and by the 1990s was distributing evangelistic materials to Adventists worldwide.
Some currently used seminars are:
The seminar Revelation: Hope, Meaning, Purpose was written primarily by Jon Paulien and Graeme Bradford, and “published under the guidance of the Biblical Research Committee of the South Pacific Division […]” in 2010. It consists of 24 sessions, available as printed booklets and also on 12 DVDs.Daniel and Revelation Committee Series:185)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Daniel_and_Revelation_Committee_Series
The Daniel and Revelation Committee Series (DARCOM) is one of the foremost Adventist sources, and consists of the following volumes:
Adventist evangelists such as Mark Finley, Doug Batchelor, Dwight Nelson, John Carter ,John Bradshaw,and Joey Suarez form a major popular face of the church, through their ministries at a local level and/or their appearances in public and on Adventist television networks such as 3ABN, It Is Written, and the Hope Channel. 3ABN founder Danny Shelton is comparable.COMPARISON TO OTHER CHRISTIAN VIEWS:191)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventh-day_Adventist_eschatology#Comparison_to_other_Christian_views
The Seventh-day Adventist Church fits into the premillennial school of end-time belief, although it is taught that the millennial reign of Christ takes place in heaven instead of on Earth.
There are several unique aspects of the denomination’s teaching, such as the investigative judgment and the idea of a “Sunday law”, which are shared by no other Christian denomination.
Seventh-day Adventism’s eschatological teaching may be contrasted with:
References [ + ]
|10.||↑||image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Miller_(preacher)#/media/File:Ezrachonology.jpg|
|13.||↑||Early Writings, 74–75.|
|111, 157, 158.||↑||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Alexandre_Berthier|