De Spectaculis (The Shows) background information.

Early Christian Writings

Title: De spectaculis  

Subheading: (On the games)

From: (

Ante-Nicene Fathers

Τὰ ἀρχαῖα ἔθη κρατείτω. The Nicene Council

Related Link:   

By: Roger Pearse  

Our Ref:
ECST: 167.02.1.T77

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This treatise considers the propriety of attending games and shows, and argues that Christians should not.  The work is of great interest as a major source of information on the history and operation of the games in the amphitheatre.


Why Christians should not attend the gladiatorial and other games and public spectacles in the arena. The reason is that they are steeped in idolatry, and the mass-emotion is a powerful method used by pagans to seduce Christians into sinful bloodlust, and hence to abandon their religion. He concludes with the image of the greatest spectacle the world will ever see, the Second Coming of our Lord, and satirically points out that if it’s alright to enjoy the death of others, then on that day it will be really great, because they can enjoy not just the death but the damnation of others instead.


Contemporary Carthaginians were addicted to the violence of gladiatorial displays. Indeed, in the reign of Constantius, a geographer singled out this addiction as one of the main characteristics of the city: another was its street of silversmiths. B

People were becoming Christians, but still going to the games. Tertullian points out the rules of Christian living. However he also explains why it is wrong, since people can be tempted to sin through ignorance, whether real or pretended. For the force of pleasure can prolong ignorance and corrupt the conscience. Heathens seduce their Christian friends by arguing that enjoyment of spectacles is a harmless pleasure which cannot offend God, that God would not have created the material for spectacles if he had not intended it to be used.

In reality everything the devil uses for evil purposes, or rather abuses, was created by God. This includes plants that are poisonous, for instance.

However, some people have devised a theology to justify their pleasures – the bible doesn’t talk about it so it must be OK. This catches out the naive, and is used by the crafty. Tertullian quotes Psalm 1.1 – ‘Blessed is the man who enters not the assembly of the impious’ – and it doesn’t get more impious than a crowd screaming for murder to be done. It’s idolatrous too – the games have a pagan religious origin, and even though people don’t really actively go in a religious spirit, the trappings are still there. Tertullian quotes at length from Suetonius’ lost Ludiera Historia with additions from Varro and other writers.

The desire for pleasure itself can be unhealthy, and arouse base emotions. These are an integral part of the theatre, including the obscene Atellan farces, naked prostitutes, etc. Even the unbelievers despise the entertainers! And how can a Christian worship God in such a setting? This is where Christians are executed! Demons lurk waiting to attack – Tertullian quotes some recent cases. It’s all about temptation to sin – and the unbelievers know it, which is why they tempt the Christians to come along.

Even so, some people are pretty addicted. Fine – in that case, save yourself – the Last Judgement will make these little shows look provincial.


Tertullian’s closing passage has been quoted (out of context, and translated ‘with judicious laxity’ – T.R. Glover (p xi)) by Gibbon in Decline and Fall, ch. xv, to rubbish him as ‘the stern Tertullian’ with his ‘long variety of affected and unfeeling witticisms’, and following him Matthew Arnold, ‘the fierce African’ of the ‘unpitying Phrygian sect’, with a view to anti-Christian polemic in both cases.  Nietzsche cites the same passage in On the Genealogy of Morality (ed. Ansell-Pearson, CUP, 1994) 1.15; i.e. section 15 of essay 1, ‘Good and Evil’, ‘Good and Bad’; pp. 31-34 of the CUP edition.

Tertullian’s real view is to be found earlier in the work, ch. 19, 2: “the innocent can find no pleasure in another’s sufferings: he rather mourns that a brother has sinned so heinously as to need a punishment so dreadful.”


The text of this work was transmitted to us in three collections:

• The Corbie collection.  All MSS are lost, but copies were used for the 1545, 1550 and 1583/4 early editions, and a single page (from this work) of a 9th century MS from Cologne also exists, known as the Keppel fragment or Fragmentum Gueldriana, first published by Leiftinck (see below, with photograph).

• The Agobardine collection. Only one MS now exists, the 9th century Codex Agobardinus (A) or Parisinus Latinus 1622.  This portion of the MS has suffered badly from damp.  Worse still, the rotted edges have been cut off, losing up to 20 letters.  The edition of CASTORINA employed the UV lamp and recovered considerable portions of text.

• The 13th century Codex Vaticanus Ottobonianus Latinus 25.  This contains large extracts.

The text given in the 1545 Gagny/Mesnart edition is generally considered better than the Agobardinus.  Gelenius in 1550 has the use of a lost Malmesbury MS, and an extant collation of it was used again by Pamelius in 1583/4.

A full description is given in TURCAN’s edition for the SC.


INCIP DE SPECT Agobardinus (A)
DE SPECTACVLIS Lost Corbeiensis (from a catalogue)
DE FIDE Lost Coloniensis, from a catalogue of 833 (see Dekkers in Sacris Erudiri)
Spectaculorum libri / duo libri de spectaculis Lost Trevirensis (cf Oehler, p. XVIII)
est excerptum ex Tertull. De spect In margin of Ottobonianus 25 (O) in 18th C hand.

• Note: The MSS have the overscore above the letter, but this requires a modern browser to see it. It signifies an abbreviation.

• In addition there are chapter titles.  They are given in the Codex Agobardinus for chapters 6-12. In the 1545 edition titles also appear for chapters 1-5, presumably from the lost Corbie-class manuscript.  Finally the inventories for Corbie and Cologne give some information confirming that De munere was the title of chapter 12 in both collections.

• [So how far back do the chapter titles go, if they are identical in both Agobardinus and Corbie MSS?]


This runs up to 1994.  Where not otherwise indicated, details are from Quasten’s Patrology, 2 (1955). See also Editions page and Critical Editions page for more information.  My thanks to Petr KITZLER for sending me a copy of his bibliography, from which some items are taken.


F. OEHLER, Tertulliani Opera Quae Supersunt, Leipzig (1851-3).  pp. 17-66.  Checked.  Includes commentary.

G. CURREY, Tertulliani Libri tres, de spectaculis, de idololatria, et de corona militis. Three treatises of Tertullian, with English notes, an introduction and indexes. Edited … by G. Currey.. Cambridge, printed, and London, 1854. 8o.(Details from BL online catalogue)

E. KLUSSMANN, Q. Septimii Florentis Tertulliani libellus de spectaculis, recens., adnotationes criticas nouas addidit E. Klussmann. Rudolphopoli 1876. 22cm. (Details from Bodleian online catalogue)


T. R. GLOVER, Tertullian: Apology, De Spectaculis; Minucius Felix, Octavius (Loeb Classical Library 250). London-New York (1931) pp. 230-300. Checked. Latin text online.  Reprints CSEL 20.

A. BOULANGER, Tertullian, De spectaculis. Paris, 1933.

E. DEKKERS, CCSL 1 (1954). pp. 225-254. Checked.

J. (Josephus = Giuseppe) MARRA, De spectaculis, De fuga in persecutione, De Pallio. Series: Corpus scriptorum Latinorum Paravianum. Torino Paravia (1954). 2nd ed. xviii+162p. 20cm. 800L. (Details APh26.p169 – extra details, Dr. Andrea Nicolotti).  With translation.

E. CASTORINA, De spectaculis. intro. testo crit. comm. e trad. a cura di E.C.   Bibl. di Stud. sup. 47. Firenze La Nuova Italia (1961, 19712). xc+487p. 3700L. (Details APh33; PK gives details of 2nd edition, but dates 1st to 1963).

Marie TURCAN, Tertullien : Les Spectacles, Sources Chretiennes 332 (1986). Checked. French critical edition with copious excellent notes.

Karl Wilhelm WEEBER, Quintus Septimius Tertullianus. De spectaculis. bei die Spiele. Lateinisch/deutsch von Karl Wilhelm Weeber. Stuttgart (Reclam) 1988.  Checked (Personal copy).  According to CTC this is the Dekker-text with a readable german translation and some informed notes, literature and a short introduction at a very low price (DM6.-) (Reprinted 2002, according to CTC 2003,70).

Martino MENGHI, Tertulliano. De spectaculis. Ad martyras. Milano: A. Monadori (1995), xxiv+131p. Series: Oscar classici greci e latini 92. Not checked.  (Details from CTC 97,3).  Latin text without apparatus from Turcan, with printer errors, with excellent Italian translation.

M.A. BETANCOR, G. SANTANA, G. VILANON, De spectaculis. Ayer y hoy del espectáculo deportivo. Madrid: Ediciones Clásicas (2001), 214 pp.  Not checked. (Details from CTC 03,3).  Latin text without apparatus from Dekkers, Castilian translation, with notes translated mainly from Turcan.  Also the similar work by Novatian, text by Diercks, translated but without notes.


H. QUELLETConcordance verbale du De spectaculis de Tertullien. Hildesheim/ Zürich/ New York: Olms 2001. (Details PK) IV, 370 S. ISBN: 3-487-11313-9 (Details from ‘net)



C. DODGSONOf public shows, Library of Fathers 10. Oxford, 1842, 187-219.

S. THELWALLANCL 11 (1869) pp.8-35; reprinted ANF 3 (1885), pp. 79-91.  Online.  Checked.

T. R. GLOVERloc. cit. 230-301. (1931). Checked.

R. ARBESMANNFathers of the Church XL (1959), pp.47-110. Checked. (Personal copy)


• [Mathieu CAUBERETraités de Tert. sur l’ornement des femmes, les spectacles …, Paris (1733).  (Details TURCAN, SC332, p.332; also Biblioteca de CatalunyaMontpellier library catalogue).

M. CHARPENTIEROeuvres de Tertullien: Apologétique. Prescriptions contre les gentils. Du Baptême. De l’Ornement des femmes. [Contre les spectacles. De la Patience. De la Couronne du soldat. Contre Marcion, extrait. De la Chair de Jésus-Christ. De la Résurrection de la chair. Aux nations. – listed in table of contents but not on title page] Paris : Ed. M. Charpentier, 1844. 12o, III-504 p.  Another title page has the address:”A. Delahays, 1845″. “Oeuvres de Tertullien traduites en français” Checked (Details from BNF catalogue and personal copy).  De Spectaculis is pp.175-209.  According to TURCAN, SC332, p.322 this is a reprint of CAUBERE.

A. DE GENOUDE, Oeuvres de Tertullien: Contre les spectacles. Paris (1852).  3 vols.  Vol. 2.  (Details from BNF catalogue).

J.A.C. BUCHONChoix de monuments primitifs de l’ère chrétienne, Paris (1860). According to TURCAN, SC332, p.322 this is a reprint of CAUBERE.

P. DE LABRIOLLE, Tertullien, Traité “Des Spectacles”, t. 1 (Cours de Sorbonne), Paris (1936).  (Details TURCAN, SC332, p.332).

Marie TURCANloc. cit. (1986). Checked.


H. KELLNERUeber die Schauspiele, BKV2 7 (1912). pp. 101-136.  Online.

Karl Wilhelm WEEBERloc. cit. (1988).  Checked.


H. U. MEYBOOM, Over de schouwspelen (Oudchristel. geschriften, dl. 46) Leiden, 1931.

CHR. MOHRMANNTertullianus: Apologeticum en andere geschriften…,  De openbare spelen, MG 1, 3. Utrecht, 1951, 197-240. (Extra details TURCAN, SC332, p.332).


Selvaggia BORGHINIOpere di Tertulliano tradotte in Toscano. Rome (1756). p.131-172.  Personal copy. Checked.

Gino MAZZONIQuinto S. F. Tertulliano, I trattati : de spectaculis, de idolatria, de poenitentia ; tradotti da Gino Mazzoni .Siena : E. Cantagalli, 1934. 215 p.; 20 cm. ( I classici cristiani ; 50-52. I classici italiani ; 50-52.) (Details from BN Florence OPAC).  Online complete.

J. MARRAloc. cit. (1954)

E. CASTORINAloc. cit. (1961).

Martino MENGHIloc. cit. (1995).

Norwegian: 1887 :

Udvalgte Skrifter af Tertullian. Oversatte af J. Arnesen. (= Vidnesbyrd af Kirkefædrene 15), Christiania 1887, VIII+258 s. ( Collection: De testimonio animae – De spectaculis – De praescriptione haereticorum? – De anima).  (Details from Holger Villadsen).  I do have a copy of this, but being in Fraktur and in Norwegian, I wasn’t able to work out what was in it.

Danish: 2007 :

Richard Mott’s revised translation of Arnesen.  Online here.  From


F. MELRO & J. MAIATertuliano, A moda feminina, Os espectaculos. Lisbon 1974 (Details from Petr Kitzler).


W. MYSZORO widowiskach. In: Tertullian, Wybor pism. Warszawa 1970, pp. 79 -113.(Details from Petr Kitzler).


P. KITZLERO hráchPraha: Oikoymenh (2004).  280 pp. ISBN: 80-7298-100-5.  Personal copy. Checked.  Copies available online.  Chapters 20-22 are online here; 28-30 are online here.


László VANYÓ &c, Tertullianus muvei (The works of Tertullian), Budapest: Szent István Társulat (1986) 1100pp. (Ókeresztény frók 12). (Details CTC 2002.75).  The older translations of István Városi (Pat, Apol, Orat, Ux, Cult) and Marcell Mosolygó (Mart) have been recycled; the rest are new.


M.A. BETANCOR, G. SANTANA, G. VILANONloc. cit. (2001).


J. BÜCHNERQuint. Sept. Flor. Tertullian. De Spectaculis.  Kommentar. Würzberg (1935). (Details TURCAN, SC332, p.332).

P. DE LABRIOLLE, Tertullien, Traité “Des Spectacles”, t. 2 (Cours de Sorbonne), Paris (1936).  (Details TURCAN, SC332, p.333).

• E. CASTORINAloc. cit. (1961).(Details TURCAN, SC332, p.333).


J. SCHALLERExercitatio ad Q. Septimii Florentis Tertulliani librum de spectaculis. Argentorati 1657. (Details PK)

M. HAUPTAnalecta XIX (On De Pallio 5, De Spectaculis 10), Hermes. Zeitschrift für Classische Philologie 1 (1866) pp. 259-261

B. KÜBLERZu Tertullian De spect. 10. In: Hermes 26, 1891, s. 479-480. (Details PK)

E. NOLDECHEN, Die Quellen Tertullians in seinem Buch von den Schauspielen: Philologus, Suppl. Band 6, 2 (1894) pp. 727-766 (PK says 1891-3, pp.730-777)

• idem, Tertullian und das Spielwesen: Zeitschr. für wissensch. Theologie 37 (1894) 91-125
• idem, Tertullian und der Agon: Neue Jahrbucher für deutsche Theologie 3 (1894) 206-226
• idem, Tertullian und das Theater: Zeitschr. für Kirchengeschichte 15 (1894/95) 161-203.

K. WERBERTertullians Schrift De spectaculis in ihrem Verhältnis zu Varros Rerum divinarum libri. Programm Teschen 1896, s. 1-34. (Details PK)

P. WOLF, Die Stellung der Christen zu den Schauspielen nach Tertullians Schrift De spectaculis. Diss. Vienna, 1897.

A. D’ALES“Pompa diaboli”. In: RSR 1, 1910, s. 571-590. (Details PK)

H. J. SOVERI, De ludorum memoria praecipue capita Tertullianea selecta. Diss. Helsingfors, 1912. (Quasten, more details PK)

J.-B. ÉRIAUPourquoi les Peres de l’Eglise ont-ils condamné le theatre de leur temps. Paris-Angers 1914. (Details PK)

R. M. CHASE, Tertullian, De spectaculis: CJ 23 (1927) 107-120.

J. KÖHNE, Die Schrift Tertullians “Über die Schauspiele” in Kultur- und Religionsgeschichtlicher Bedeutung. Diss. Breslau, 1929. (Quasten: PK says locatiion Münster)

H. WOLLMANNDefixus in morsus ursorum et spongias retiariorum. In: Mitteilungen des Deutsch. Archäol. Instituts, Römische Abt. 45, 1930, s. 227-233. (Details PK)

E. de WITTERSTertullien. De spectaculis. Tome I: L’Introduction. Tome II: Index verborum omnium. Louvain 1941. (Details PK)

E. WITTERS, Tertullien, De spectaculis. Index verborum omnium. Louvain, 1942.

J. LAMPAERT, Tertullianus’ De spectaculis. Inleiding en commentaar. Louvain, 1943.

L. ROBERTSpongiae retiariorum. In: Hellenica, Tom. 3, Paris 1946, s. 151-162. (Details PK)

J. H. WASZINK“Pompa diaboli”. In: VChr 1, 1947, s. 13-41. (Details PK)

J. H. WASZINK, Varro, Livy and Tertullian on the History of Dramatic Art: VC 2 (1948) 224-242.

A. H. COURATIN, The Sanctus and the Pattern of the Early Anaphora (De spectacul. 25): Journal of Ecclesiastical History 2 (1951) 19-23.

J.W.Ph. BORLEFFSUn nouveau manuscrit de Tertullien, Vigiliae Christianae 5 (1951) p65-79. (Personal copy).  Discovery of Ottobonianus codex, incl Spect.

A. H. COURATINThe Sanctus and the Pattern of the Early Anaphora (De spec. 25). In: JEH 2, 1951, s. 19-23. (Details PK)

G. I. LIEFTINCKUn fragment de ‘De spectaculis’ de Tertullien provenant d’un manuscrit du neuvieme siecle: VC 5 (1951) 193-203.

E. CASTORINA, Per una nuova edizione del De spectaculis di Tertulliano. BPEC N.S. 4 (1956), pp. 29-58.  (Details from APh 27). Highlighting the importance of the discoveries of Borleffs and Leiftinck for De Spectaculis.

P. PETITMENGINLe Tertullien de Fulvio Orsini. In: Eranos 59, 1961, s. 116-135. (Details PK)

M. TURCANAedes Solis au Grand Cirque. In: REL 36, 1958, s. 255-262. (Details PK)

L. ALFONSIDue note sul De spectaculis di Tertulliano. In: A&R 8, 1963, s. 33-35. (Details PK) 

• H. TRÄNKLE (rec.), Tertulliani De spectaculis, ed. Castorina. Firenze 1961. In: Gnomon 35, 1963, s. 787-796. (Details PK)

• C. TIBLETTI, Osservazioni sul De spectaculis di Tertulliano, AAT 98 (1963-4), pp.153-187 (Details APh 35).  Some readings from Agob. which should be used.

P. G. van der NATTertullianea. In: VChr 18, 1964, s. 129-143. (Details PK)

C. TIBILETTIInizi del millenarismo di Tertulliano. In: AFLM 1, 1968, s. 193-213. (Details PK)

W. HORBURY, Tertullian on the Jews in the light of De spectaculis 30. 5-6, JThS 23 (1972), pp.455-459. (Details APh43, 1974.  PK says N.S. 22)

H. JÜRGENSPompa diaboli, die lateinischen Kirchenväter und das antike Theater. Tübingen 1972. (Details PK)

W. WEISMANNKirche und Schauspiele. Die Schauspiele im Urteil der lateinischen Kirchenväter unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Augustin. Würzburg 1972. (Details PK)

J. COURTESSpectacles et jeux a l’époche patristique. Analyse topique, traitement moral et transformation symbolique d’un fait de culture. Paris 1973. (Details PK)

C. LO CICEROL’epilogo del De spectaculis di Tertulliano. In: PAN 6, 1978, s. 65-84. (Details PK)

Robert Dick SIDER, Tertullian, On the shows: an Analysis. Journal of Theological Studies, New Series 29 (1978), pp. 339-365.  (Details CTC 78,11).  Argumentation.

I. BAIESINote critiche su Tertulliano De spectaculis. In: S. Zanetti (ed.), Verbis verum amare. Miscellanea dell’ Istituto di Filologia latino e medioevale dell’ Universita di Bologna. Firenze 1980, s. 53-62. (Details PK)

Paolo BIESI, Note critiche su Tertulliano, De Spectaculis.  In verbis verum amare: Miscellanea dell’Instituto di Filologia Latina e Mediovale, Università di Bologna, a cura di Paolo Serra Zanetti, Firenze, La Nuova Italia (1980) pp. 53-62. (Details CTC 80,18).  Partial evaluation of different text traditions (=Agob. is best).

Ch. SCHÄUBLINBemerkungen zu Tertullian, De spectaculis. In: WS, N. F. 94, 1981, s. 205-209. (Details PK)

Georg. SCHOELLGEN, Der Adressatenkreis der griechischen Schauspielschrift Tertullians. Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum 25 (1982), pp. 22-27.  (Details CTC 82, 23).

G. WATSON“All his Works and Pomps”. In: Maynooth Review 7, 1982, s. 53-57. (Details PK)

J. CANTO LORCAUna fuente de Isidoro de Sevilla (Etym. 18). In: Stephanion. Homenaje a M. C. Giner, Salamanca 1988, s. 167-176. (Details PK)

Pier Angelo GRAMMAGLIA, Review of Tertullien, Les Spectacles, ed. M. TURCAN, SC332.  Rivista di Storia e Letteratura Religiosa 25 (1989), pp.342-351.  (Details CTC 89,10).  Detailed analysis of passages, generally moving towards the Agobardinus text.

Josefa CANTÓ LORCA, Una fuente de Isidoro de Sevilla (Eym. 18). Stephanion: Hoenaje a María C. Giner. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca (1988), pp. 167-176. Series: Acta Salmanticensia: Estudios filológicos 200.  (Details CTC 91,75).  Use of De Spectaculis by Isidore of Seville.

M. G. MOSCI SASSIUna proposta di lettura a Tert. Spect. 29, 5. In: RPL 12, 1989, s. 139-143. (Details PK)

E. PERUZZITertullianoSpect. 29, 5. In: PP 44, 1989, s. 186-187. (Details PK)

V. PICONEl De spectaculis de Tertuliano: su originalidad. In: Helmantica 40, 1989, s. 397-412. (Details PK)

M. MATTERJeux d’ amphitheatre et reactions chrétiennes de Tertullien a la fin du Ve siecle. In: Domergue, C., Landes, Chr., Pailler, J.-M. (eds.), Spectacula I. Gladiateurs et amphitheatres, Paris 1990, s. 259-264. (Details PK)

Marie-Louise COSTANTINI, Tertullien, Nietsche: deux sombres précuseurs. Autour de Tertullien: Hommage à René Braun, t. 2, pp. 223-246.  (Details CTC 91, 76)  Nietsche’s use of the last part of De Spectaculis to pillory the Christians.

P. NAUTINTertullien, De spectaculis 26, 4. In: Hommages R. Braun II, s. 85-90. (Details PK)

A. KESSLERHic voluptas ubi et votum. Tertullians Auseinandersetzung mit dem Vergnügen. Zur Semantik von voluptas in de spectaculis. Lizentiatsarbeit Fribourg 1992. (Details PK)

A. VASSILEIOULes éponges des rétiaires: mythe et réalité. In: DHA 18 (2), 1992, s. 137-162. (Details PK)

M. MENGHITertulliano e il „De spectaculis“. In: Lexis 9-10, 1992, s. 189-209. (Details PK)

A. KESSLERTertullian und das Vergnügen in De spectaculis. In: FZPhTh 41, 1994, s. 313-353. (Details PK)

S. REBENICHInsania circi. Eine Tertullianreminiscenz bei Hieronymus und Augustin. In: Latomus 53, 1994, s. 155-158. (Details PK)

André SCHNEIDERLe théâtre vu et jugé par les premiers chrétiens.  Le théâtre antique et sa réception: Hommage à Walter Spoerri. Neuchâtel: Secrétariat de l’Université (1994), p. 81-101. (Details CTC C134).

M. G. MOSCI SASSISpongiae retiariorum: Tert. Spect. 25, 4. In: S. Lnciotti et al. (eds.), Studi latini in ricordo di Rita Cappelletto. Urbino 1996, s. 93-100. (Details PK)

Alessandro SAGGIORODalla pompa diaboli allo spirituale theatrum. Cultura classica e cristianesimo nella polemica dei Padri della Chiesa contro gli spettacoli. Il terzo secolo.  Palermo: Università di Palermo, Facoltà de Lettere e Filosofia, Istituto di Storia Antica (1999). 211pp. (= ΜΥΘΟΣ. Rivista di storia delle religioni 8, 1996). (Details CTC 2003, 25).

Darryl A. PHILLIPPSTertullian on the Opening of Pompey’s Theater in Rome.  Syllecta Classica, A publication of the Classics Department of the University of Iowa, 12 (2001) pp.208-220. (Details CTC2002).  The author debunks Spect. 10:5; unsuccessfully, according to CTC.

Slobodan DUSANIC and • Zarko PETROVICThe Flamen Quirinalis at the Consualia and the Horseman of the Lacus Curtius, Aevum 76 (2002), pp.63-75. (Details CTC 2003, 27).  Spect. 5:7 is the only witness about the rites of Consus and the inscription in the circus mentioned.


I. LIPSIUSDe amphitheatro liber. In quo forma ipsa loci expressa, & ratio spectandi. Antverpiae 1604. (Details PK)

• [Unknown], L’Amphithéâtre Flavien et ses environs dans les textes hagiographiques. In: Analecta Bollandiana 16, 1897, s. 209-252. (Details PK)

R. AUGUETCruauté et civilisationLes jeux Romains. Paris 1970. (Details PK)

G. VILLELa gladiature en occident. Des origines a la mort de Domitien. Roma 1981. (Details PK)

J. HUMPHREYRoman Circuses and Chariot Racing. London 1986. (Details PK)

P. PLASSThe Game of Death in Ancient Rome: Arena Sport and Political Suicide. Madison 1995. (Details PK)

References   [ + ]


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