De Corona (The Chaplet) background information


Early Christian Writings

Title: De corona militis (On the military garland) 

Subheading:  

From: (tertullian.org)

Ante-Nicene Fathers

Τὰ ἀρχαῖα ἔθη κρατείτω. The Nicene Council

Related Link:   

By: Roger Pearse  

Our Ref:
ECST: 167.04.1.T77

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SUMMARY

A Christian soldier had drawn attention to his beliefs at the time of the annual bonus by refusing to wear the garland worn in the ceremony, and was promptly arrested as a Christian, stirring up anti-Christian feeling. Some Christians felt he was irresponsible, given that all might be persecuted in consequence. Tertullian defends his action, and attacks his critics.

CONTENT

TDB.

OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST

• Tertullian refers for the history of the use of crowns to the lost pagan work of Claudius Saturninus (ch.7, 10, 12, 13 – in 13 he refers to the preface to the work).

• In ch. 1: he refers to those who reject the prophecy – presumably of Montanus – and their pastors who are ‘lions in peace, deer in the fight.’

• ch.1, 5: refers to another work on flight in persecution, as to be written.

• The work contains a long defense of the value of unwritten tradition, and a rejection of the demand that every prohibition must be in scripture.  He comments on various details of church practise which are not in scripture, but are allowed. (ch.3)

• ch. 6,3: he refers to a work he has written on the shows, in Greek.

• ch 7: refers to Hesiod, Diodorus, Callimachus, Pindar, Harpocration, and Leo the Egyptian.

• In ch. 11: he says that Christians cannot be soldiers.

• He discusses the idea that following Christ is oppressive (13, 6).

• In ch. 15: he refers to the initiation of Mithras, and their refusal also to wear a crown.

MANUSCRIPTS

The text of this work was transmitted to us in two collections.

• The Agobardine collection. Only one MS now exists, the 9th century Codex Agobardinus (A) or Parisinus Latinus 1622.

• The Cluny collection. (q.v.).

The primary witnesses, therefore, for the latter are:

• The 15th century Florence MS, Codex Florentinus BNC Conventi soppressi J.6.9 (N). (From the Alpha branch).  The text is not in P or M, the earlier codices.  (I don’t know if there are readings from D or G for this work).

• The 15th century Luxembourg MS, Codex Luxemburgensis 75 (X).

• The 15th century(1426) Florence MS, Codex Florentinus BNC Conventi soppressi J.6.10 (F).

• Rhenanus edition of 1521.  This is because his only source for this work was the now lost Hirsau MS (H), the ancestor of F and X.

Possibly also to be considered are:

• The Naples MS, Codex Neapolitanus, Mus. Naz. 55, portions of which were once in Vienna as Codex Vindobonensis 4194 (V).

• The BPL Leiden MS, Codex Leidensis latinus 2 (L) has been considered independent but is merely a copy of V.

which may or may not have some independent witness.  Many consider them simply copies of F, however.

TITLE VARIATIONS1)http://www.tertullian.org/manuscripts/title_variations.htm

INCIPIT LIBER DE CORONA FELICITER Agobardinus (A)
DE CORONA EXPLICIT MILITIS Florentinus Magliebechianus, Conventi soppressi VI, 9 (N)
– title is blank, but explicit as shown, with MILITIS in a more recent hand
Explicit liber De corona militis Florentinus Magliebechianus, Conventi soppressi VI, 10 (F)
– title is blank, but explicit as shown
DE CORONA MILITIS Rhenanus (from the lost Hirsau codex),
Mesnart (B)
LIBER DE CORONA MILITIS Leidensis latinus 2 (L)
DE ROMANA MILITIA Leidensis latinus 2 (L)
“in indice m. rec.”

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Unless otherwise indicated, details are from Quasten’s Patrology, 2 (1955). See also Editions page and Critical Editions page for more information.

[Note: I need to add some biblio, from l’Annee Phil. for the years 1954-1974 and from CTC after that].

Editions:

J.-P. MIGNE, Patrologia Latina. 2 (1844) 73 ff. (93 ff in reprint). (Details from CPL)

F. OEHLER, Tertulliani opera quae supersunt, editio maior. 1 (1851-3). 415-460.  Checked. (Personal copy)

G. CURREY, Tertulliani Libri tres, de spectaculis, de idololatria, et de corona militis. Three treatises of Tertullian, with English notes, an introduction and indexes. Edited … by G. Currey.. Cambridge, printed, and London, 1854. 8o.(Details from BL online catalogue)

J. MARRA, Tertullianus, De corona (Corpus script, lat. Paravianum 49). Turin, 1927. [Septimii Tertulliani “De corona” liber : ad fidem praecipue codicis Agobardini. Aug. Taurinorum [etc.] : in aedibus I.B. Paraviae et sociorum, 1927. Description: xxvii, 47 p. 19 cm. Series: Corpus scriptorum latinorum Paravianum, n. 49 Other Names: Marra, Giuseppe (Details from Bodleian online catalogue)]

E. KROYMANN, CSEL 70 (1942) 153-188. Checked.

E. KROYMANN, CCSL 2 (1954) 1037-1066. Checked.

J. FONTAINEQ. S. F. Tertullianus, De Corona. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France (1966).  (Details from CPL and personal copy).  [Latin text and critical apparatus only online].  No translation, but introduction and masses of notes (only 3-5 lines of Latin per page!).

F. RUGGIERO, Tertulliani de Corona. Milano (1992). (Details from CPL)

J. (Josephus = Giuseppe) MARRA, De corona liber; De cultu feminarum libri duo, Q. Septimii Tertulliani; iterum recognovit et praefatus est Iosephus Marra, Augustae Taurinorum, In aedibus Io. Bapt. Paraviae et sociorum, 1951, II editio (Corpus scriptorum Latinorum Paravianum). 181 p. ; 20 cm. (Details from Dr. Andrea Nicolotti)

Index:

• H. QUELLET, Concordance verbale du De Corona de Tertullien, Hildesheim & New York: G. Olms (1975). 434 p. 24cm (Details from CTC 75, 3).

TRANSLATIONS: 

English: 

• C. DODGSONLibrary of Fathers 10. Oxford, 1842, 158-184. Online.  Checked.

S. THELWALLANCL 11 (1869) pp.333-355; reprinted ANF 3 (1885), pp. 669-679.  Online.  Checked.

E. A. QUAIN, Fathers of the Church 40 (1959) 225-270. Checked.

French: 

• Audebert MACERÉDe la Couronne du soldat. Liure premirement escrit en Latin par Q. Septim. Florent Tertullian… Et maintenont mis en Francoys par Audebert Maceré…, Paris : De l’ impr. de M. Vascosan (1563). 93 p. ; 8° (Details from the Montpellier library catalogue)

M. CHARPENTIEROeuvres de Tertullien: Apologétique. Prescriptions contre les gentils. Du Baptême. De l’Ornement des femmes. [Contre les spectacles. De la Patience. De la Couronne du soldat. Contre Marcion, extrait. De la Chair de Jésus-Christ. De la Résurrection de la chair. Aux nations. – listed in table of contents but not on title page] Paris : Ed. M. Charpentier, 1844. 12o, III-504 p.  Another title page has the address:”A. Delahays, 1845″. “Oeuvres de Tertullien traduites en français” Checked (Details from BNF catalogue and personal copy).  De Corona is pp.236-259. Online.

A. DE GENOUDEDe la Couronne du soldat. Oeuvres de Tertullien2, Paris (1852). t. 2, pp.129-152. Checked. Online.

German: 

H. KELLNER-G. ESSERVom Kranze des Soldaten, BKV2 24 (1915). pp. 230/576-263/609.  Checked. Online.

Dutch: 

H. U. MEYBOOM, Over den lauwerkrans der soldaten (Oudchristel. geschriften, dl. 46). Leiden, 1931.

Italian: 

Selvaggia BORGHINIOpere di Tertulliano tradotte in Toscano. Rome (1756). p.213-242.  Personal copy. Checked.

Pier Angelo GRAMAGLIA, Tertulliano, La corona ; introduzione, traduzione e note di Pier Angelo Gramaglia .Roma : Edizioni paoline, [1980]. 241 p. ; 20 cm. ( Letture cristiane delle origini. Testi) ISBN 88-215-0022-5. (Details from BN Florence OPAC)

Fabio RUGGIERO, Tertulliano, De corona ; introduzione, testo, traduzione e note a cura di Fabio Ruggiero .Milano : A. Mondadori (1992) LIV, 183 p. ; 20 cm. ( Classici greci e latini ; 30.) ISBN 88-04-36406-8 (Details from BN Florence OPAC)

Slovenian: 

Tertulijan, O vencu (De corona militis).  Translated by Marko MARINCIC, 2001.

Hungarian: 

László VANYÓ &c, Tertullianus muvei (The works of Tertullian), Budapest: Szent István Társulat (1986) 1100pp. (Ókeresztény frók 12). (Details CTC 2002.75).  The older translations of István Városi (Pat, Apol, Orat, Ux, Cult) and Marcell Mosolygó (Mart) have been recycled; the rest are new.

Studies: 

E. VACANDARD, La question du service militaire chez les chrétiens des premiers siècles. Paris, 1910, 127 ff.

P. FRANCHI DE’ CAVALIERI, Note agiografiche, Fasc. 8 (ST 65). Vatican City, 1935, 357-386.

J. W. C. L. SCHULTE, Tertullianus en de krijgsdienst: Onder eigen Vaandel 12 (1937) 71-89.

K. BAUS, Der Kranz in Antike und Christentum. Eine religionsgeschichtl. Untersuchung mit bes. Berücksichtigung Tertullians (Theophaneia 2). Bonn, 1940.

F. J. DÖLGER, Das Nachsprechen der Formel beim Militärgebet am Jahres-Anfang. Zu Tertullians De corona 12: Antike und Christentum 6 (1941) 77.

H. R. MINN, Tertullian and War: Ev. Quarterly 13 (1941) 202-213.

R. H. BAINTON, The Early Church and War: HThR 39 (1946) 190f.

G. DE PLINVALTertullien et le scandale de la Couronne: Mélanges de Ghellinck. Gembloux, 1951, 183-188.

E. A. RYAN, The Rejection of Military Service by the Early Christians: TS 13 (1952) 1-32.

G. THÖRNELL, …, Gnomon 25 (1953) 104-106. (Details from CPL)

Germaine GUILLAUME-COIRIER, Techniques coronaires romaines: plantes “liées” et plantes “enfilées”. Revue archéologique, New series (2002), pp.61-71.  (Details CTC 2003, 31).  Types of garland (Cor. 5:3), based on new archaeological discoveries.

References   [ + ]

1. http://www.tertullian.org/manuscripts/title_variations.htm

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