Old Testament Period Literature

OVERVIEW TABLE 01

JEWISH
 TANAKH
PROTESTANT
BIBLE
CATHOLIC
BIBLE
EASTERN
ORTHODOX
ORIG
LANG
Old
Testament
Old
Testament
Old
Testament
Old
Testament
24 books 39 books 46 books 50 books
Hebrew Bible 1)Note 1. The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible are the same as the 39 books of the Protestant Old Testament, only divided and ordered differently: the books of the Minor Prophets are in Christian Bibles twelve different books, and in Hebrew Bibles, one book called “The Twelve”. Likewise, Christian Bibles divide the Books of Kingdoms into four books, either 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings or 1–4 Kings: Jewish Bibles divide these into two books. The Jews likewise keep 1–2 Chronicles/Paralipomenon as one book. Ezra and Nehemiah are likewise combined in the Jewish Bible, as they are in many Orthodox Bibles, instead of divided into two books, as per the Catholic and Protestant tradition. Christian Bible Catholic Bible Orthodox Bible
CJB KJV CPDV EOB
TORAH PENTATEUCH 2)Five Books of Moses
Bereishit
(Torah.)
Genesis 
(Pentateuch)
Genesis Genesis HEB
Shemot
(Torah.)
Exodus 
(Pentateuch)
Exodus Exodus HEB
Vayikra
(Torah.)
Leviticus 
(Pentateuch)
Leviticus Leviticus HEB
Bamidbar
(Torah.)
Numbers 
(Pentateuch)
Numbers Numbers HEB
Devarim
(Torah.)
Deuteronomy 
(Pentateuch)
Deuteronomy Deuteronomy HEB
NEVI’IM
(Prophets)
HISTORICAL BOOKS
Yehoshua
(Nevi’im.)
Joshua 
(History.)
Joshua 
(Josue)
Joshua 
(Iesous)
HEB
Shofetim
(Nevi’im.)
Judges 
(History.)
Judges Judges HEB
Rut 
(Ruth)  
(Ketuvim) 
(Megillot)
3)Note 1.  Books are part of the Ketuvim  (Ketuvim/Hamesh Megillot).  4)Note 14.  The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible are the same as the 39 books of the Protestant Old Testament, only divided and ordered differently: the books of the Minor Prophets are in Christian Bibles twelve different books, and in Hebrew Bibles, one book called “The Twelve”. Likewise, Christian Bibles divide the Books of Kingdoms into four books, either 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings or 1–4 Kings: Jewish Bibles divide these into two books. The Jews likewise keep 1–2 Chronicles/Paralipomenon as one book. Ezra and Nehemiah are likewise combined in the Jewish Bible, as they are in many Orthodox Bibles, instead of divided into two books, as per the Catholic and Protestant tradition. Ruth 
(History.)
Ruth Ruth HEB
Shemuel
(Nevi’im.)
5)Note 2.  Samuel 1 & 2 note separated in Hebrew Bible 1 Samuel 
(History.)
1 Samuel 
(1 Kings)
6)Note 23.  The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox. 1 Samuel 
(1 Kingdoms)
7)Note 24.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. HEB 8)Hebrew
2 Samuel 
(History.)
2 Samuel 
(2 Kings)
9)Note 22.  The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox. 2 Samuel 
(2 Kingdoms)
10)Note 25.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. HEB
Melakhim
(Nevi’im.)
11)Note 3.  Kings 1 & 2 note separated in Hebrew Bible 1 Kings
(History.)
1 Kings 
(3 Kings) 
12)Note 21.  The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox. 1 Kings 
(3 Kingdoms)
13)Note 26.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. HEB
2 Kings
(History.)
2 Kings 
(4 Kings) 
14)Note 20.  The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox. 2 Kings 
(4 Kingdoms)
15)Note 27.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. HEB
Divrei Hayamim
(Chronicles) 
(Ketuvim) 
(Other)
16)Note 4.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Other Books).  17)Note 15.  Chronicles 1 & 2 note separated in Hebrew Bible 1 Chronicles
(History.)
1 Chronicles
(1 Paralipomenon)
1 Chronicles
(1 Paralipomenon)
HEB
2 Chronicles
(History.)
2 Chronicles
(2 Paralipomenon)
2 Chronicles
(2 Paralipomenon)
HEB
1 Esdras 18)Note 28.  One of 11 deuterocanonical books in Russian Synodal Bible. 19)Note 45.  2 Esdras in Russian Synodal Bible. HEB
Ezra–Nehemiah 
(Ketuvim) 
(Other)
20)Note 5.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Other Books). Ezra
(History.)
Ezra 
(1 Esdras)
Ezra 
(2 Esdras)
21)Note 29.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. 22)Note 46.    Some Eastern Orthodox churches follow the Septuagint and the Hebrew bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book. 23)Note 51.   1 Esdras in Russian Synodal Bible. ARC
HEB
24)Aramaic
Nehemiah
(History.)
Nehemiah 
(2 Esdras)
Nehemiah 
(2 Esdras)
25)Note 30.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. 26)Note 47.  Some Eastern Orthodox churches follow the Septuagint and the Hebrew bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book. 27)Note 52.   Some Eastern Orthodox churches follow the Septuagint and the Hebrew bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book. HEB
Tobit 
(Tobias)
Tobit 
(Tobias)
28)Note 31.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. 29)Note 48.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. ARC
HEB
Judith Judith 30)Note 32.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. HEB
Esther   
(Ketuvim) 
(Megillot)
31)Note 6.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon.  (Ketuvim./Hamesh Megillot). Esther
(History.)
Esther 32)Note 19.  The Catholic and Orthodox Book of Esther includes 103 verses not in the Protestant Book of Esther. Esther 33)Note 33.  The Catholic and Orthodox Book of Esther includes 103 verses not in the Protestant Book of Esther. HEB
1 Maccabees 
(1 Machabees)
34)ref1 Jones 2001, p. 215. 1 Maccabees 35)Note 34a.   Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. HEB
2 Maccabees 
(2 Machabees)
36)ref2 Jones 2001, p. 215. 2 Maccabees 37)Note 34b.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. GRC
3 Maccabees 38)Note 35.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. GRC
3 Esdras 39)Note 36.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. GRC?
4 Maccabees 40)Note 37.   In Greek Bibles, 4 Maccabees is found in the appendix. GRC
KETUVIM
 (Writings)
41)[1 Sifrei Emet], [2 Hamesh Megillot], [3 Other Books] SAPIENTIAL
(Poetic)
Iyov   
(Job)
(Ketuvim) 
(Sifrei Emet)
42)Note 7.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Sifrei Emet). Job
(Poetic)
Job Job HEB
Tehillim  
(Psalms)
(Ketuvim) 
(Sifrei Emet)
43)Note 8.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Sifrei Emet). Psalms
(Poetic)
Psalms Psalms 44)Note 38.   Eastern Orthodox churches include Psalm 151 and the Prayer of Manasseh, not present in all canons. HEB
Prayer of Manasseh 45)Note 39.  Part of 2 Paralipomenon in Russian Synodal Bible. GRC
Mishlei 
(Proverbs)
(Ketuvim) 
(Sifrei Emet)
46)Note 9.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketu./Sifrei Emet). Proverbs
(Poetic)
Proverbs Proverbs HEB
Qoheleth  
(Ecclesiastes)
(Ketuvim) 
(Hamesh Megillot)
47)Note 10.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon.  (Ketu./Hamesh Megillot). Ecclesiastes
(Poetic)
Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes HEB
Shir Hashirim  
(Song of Songs)  
(Ketuvim) 
(Hamesh Megillot)
48)Note 11.  Note. This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon.  (Ketu./Hamesh Megillot). Song of Solomon
(Poetic)
Song of Songs 
(Canticle of Canticles)
Song of Songs 
(Aisma Aismaton)
HEB
Wisdom Wisdom 49)Note 40.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. GRC
Sirach 
(Ecclesiasticus)
Sirach 50)Note 41.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. HEB
NEVI’IM
(Latter Prophets)
MAJOR PROPHETS
Yeshayahu
(Nevi’im.)
Isaiah
 (Mjr.Prophets)
Isaiah 
(Isaias) 
Isaiah  HEB
Yirmeyahu
(Nevi’im.)
Jeremiah
 (Mjr.Prophets)
Jeremiah 
(Jeremias) 
Jeremiah HEB
ARC
Eikhah 
(Lamentations)
(Ketuvim) 
(Hamesh Megillot)
51)Note 12.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon.  (Ketuvim./Hamesh Megillot). Lamentations
 (Mjr.Prophets)
Lamentations Lamentations HEB
Baruch 52)Note 18.  In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the Letter of Jeremiah. Baruch is not in the Protestant Bible or the Tanakh. Baruch 53)Note 42.  In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the Letter of Jeremiah. Baruch is not in the Protestant Bible or the Tanakh. 54)Note 49. Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. HEB 55)Note 51. “Baruch”, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911
Letter of Jeremiah 56)Note 43.  Eastern Orthodox Bibles have the books of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah separate. 57)Note 50. Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. GRC 58)Note 52a Greek = [majority view] Note 52. Hebrew = [minority view]; see Letter of Jeremiah for details.
Yekhezqel
(Nevi’im.)
Ezekiel
 (Mjr.Prophets)
Ezekiel 
(Ezechiel)
Ezekiel HEB
Daniel 
(Ketuvim
(Other)
59)Note 13.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Other Books). Daniel
 (Mjr.Prophets)
Daniel 60)Note 17.  In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant Bibles. The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children are included between Daniel 3:23–24. Susanna is included as Daniel 13. Bel and the Dragon is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant Old Testament. Daniel 61)Note 44.  In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant Bibles. The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children are included between Daniel 3:23–24. Susanna is included as Daniel 13. Bel and the Dragon is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant Old Testament. HEB
ARC
THE TWELVE ,
(Trei Asar)
(Nevi’im.)
62)Minor Prophets MINOR PROPHETS
The Twelve 
(01/12) 
Hosea
 (Min.Prophets)
Hosea 
(Osee)
Hosea HEB
The Twelve 
(02/12) 
Joel
 (Min.Prophets)
Joel Joel HEB
The Twelve 
(03/12)
Amos
 (Min.Prophets)
Amos Amos HEB
The Twelve 
(04/12) 
Obadiah
 (Min.Prophets)
Obadiah 
(Abdias)
Obadiah HEB
The Twelve 
(05/12) 
Jonah
 (Min.Prophets)
Jonah 
(Jonas)
Jonah HEB
The Twelve 
(06/12)
Micah
 (Min.Prophets)
Micah 
(Micheas)
Micah HEB
The Twelve 
(07/12)
Nahum
 (Min.Prophets)
Nahum Nahum HEB
The Twelve 
(08/12)
Habakkuk
 (Min.Prophets)
Habakkuk 
(Habacuc)
Habakkuk HEB
The Twelve 
(09/12)
Zephaniah
 (Min.Prophets)
Zephaniah 
(Sophonias)
Zephaniah HEB
The Twelve 
(10/12)
Haggai
 (Min.Prophets)
Haggai 
(Aggeus)
Haggai HEB
The Twelve 
(11/12)
Zechariah
 (Min.Prophets)
Zechariah 
(Zacharias)
Zechariah HEB
The Twelve 
(12/12)
Malachi
 (Min.Prophets)
Malachi 
(Malachias)
Malachi HEB

Several of the books in the Eastern Orthodox canon are also found in the appendix to the Latin Vulgate, formerly the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

Books in the Appendix to the Vulgate Bible
Name in Vulgate Name in Eastern Orthodox use
3 Esdras 1 Esdras
4 Esdras
Prayer of Manasseh Prayer of Manasseh
Psalm of David when he slew Goliath (Psalm 151) Psalm 151

References   [ + ]

1. Note 1. The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible are the same as the 39 books of the Protestant Old Testament, only divided and ordered differently: the books of the Minor Prophets are in Christian Bibles twelve different books, and in Hebrew Bibles, one book called “The Twelve”. Likewise, Christian Bibles divide the Books of Kingdoms into four books, either 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings or 1–4 Kings: Jewish Bibles divide these into two books. The Jews likewise keep 1–2 Chronicles/Paralipomenon as one book. Ezra and Nehemiah are likewise combined in the Jewish Bible, as they are in many Orthodox Bibles, instead of divided into two books, as per the Catholic and Protestant tradition.
2. Five Books of Moses
3. Note 1.  Books are part of the Ketuvim  (Ketuvim/Hamesh Megillot).
4. Note 14.  The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible are the same as the 39 books of the Protestant Old Testament, only divided and ordered differently: the books of the Minor Prophets are in Christian Bibles twelve different books, and in Hebrew Bibles, one book called “The Twelve”. Likewise, Christian Bibles divide the Books of Kingdoms into four books, either 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings or 1–4 Kings: Jewish Bibles divide these into two books. The Jews likewise keep 1–2 Chronicles/Paralipomenon as one book. Ezra and Nehemiah are likewise combined in the Jewish Bible, as they are in many Orthodox Bibles, instead of divided into two books, as per the Catholic and Protestant tradition.
5. Note 2.  Samuel 1 & 2 note separated in Hebrew Bible
6. Note 23.  The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox.
7. Note 24.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
8. Hebrew
9. Note 22.  The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox.
10. Note 25.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
11. Note 3.  Kings 1 & 2 note separated in Hebrew Bible
12. Note 21.  The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox.
13. Note 26.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
14. Note 20.  The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox.
15. Note 27.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
16. Note 4.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Other Books).
17. Note 15.  Chronicles 1 & 2 note separated in Hebrew Bible
18. Note 28.  One of 11 deuterocanonical books in Russian Synodal Bible.
19. Note 45.  2 Esdras in Russian Synodal Bible.
20. Note 5.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Other Books).
21. Note 29.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
22. Note 46.    Some Eastern Orthodox churches follow the Septuagint and the Hebrew bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book.
23. Note 51.   1 Esdras in Russian Synodal Bible.
24. Aramaic
25. Note 30.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
26. Note 47.  Some Eastern Orthodox churches follow the Septuagint and the Hebrew bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book.
27. Note 52.   Some Eastern Orthodox churches follow the Septuagint and the Hebrew bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book.
28. Note 31.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
29. Note 48.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
30. Note 32.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
31. Note 6.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon.  (Ketuvim./Hamesh Megillot).
32. Note 19.  The Catholic and Orthodox Book of Esther includes 103 verses not in the Protestant Book of Esther.
33. Note 33.  The Catholic and Orthodox Book of Esther includes 103 verses not in the Protestant Book of Esther.
34. ref1 Jones 2001, p. 215.
35. Note 34a.   Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
36. ref2 Jones 2001, p. 215.
37. Note 34b.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
38. Note 35.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
39. Note 36.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
40. Note 37.   In Greek Bibles, 4 Maccabees is found in the appendix.
41. [1 Sifrei Emet], [2 Hamesh Megillot], [3 Other Books]
42. Note 7.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Sifrei Emet).
43. Note 8.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Sifrei Emet).
44. Note 38.   Eastern Orthodox churches include Psalm 151 and the Prayer of Manasseh, not present in all canons.
45. Note 39.  Part of 2 Paralipomenon in Russian Synodal Bible.
46. Note 9.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketu./Sifrei Emet).
47. Note 10.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon.  (Ketu./Hamesh Megillot).
48. Note 11.  Note. This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon.  (Ketu./Hamesh Megillot).
49. Note 40.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
50. Note 41.  Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
51. Note 12.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon.  (Ketuvim./Hamesh Megillot).
52. Note 18.  In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the Letter of Jeremiah. Baruch is not in the Protestant Bible or the Tanakh.
53. Note 42.  In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the Letter of Jeremiah. Baruch is not in the Protestant Bible or the Tanakh.
54. Note 49. Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
55. Note 51. “Baruch”, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911
56. Note 43.  Eastern Orthodox Bibles have the books of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah separate.
57. Note 50. Names in parentheses are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
58. Note 52a Greek = [majority view] Note 52. Hebrew = [minority view]; see Letter of Jeremiah for details.
59. Note 13.  This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. (Ketuvim./Other Books).
60. Note 17.  In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant Bibles. The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children are included between Daniel 3:23–24. Susanna is included as Daniel 13. Bel and the Dragon is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant Old Testament.
61. Note 44.  In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant Bibles. The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children are included between Daniel 3:23–24. Susanna is included as Daniel 13. Bel and the Dragon is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant Old Testament.
62. Minor Prophets

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