Dead Sea Scrolls

Prologue:1)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/category/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/

The Dead Sea Scrolls have been called the greatest manuscript find of all time. Discovered between 1947 and 1956, the Dead Sea Scrolls comprise some 800 documents but in many tens of thousands of fragments. The Scrolls date from around 250 B.C. to 68 A.D. and were written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek; they contain Biblical and apocryphal works, prayers and legal texts and sectarian documents.

This priceless collection of ancient manuscripts is invaluable to our understanding of the history of Judaism, the development of the Hebrew Bible, and the beginnings of Christianity.


Qumran Cave 1:2)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents/

Found accidentally by a Bedouin searching for stray animals in early 1947 (though it may have been earlier), Cave 1 contained the best-preserved scrolls, which had been protected by tall clay jars with lids. The notable scrolls discovered here included two copies of the Book of Isaiah, the War Scroll, which describes an expected apocalyptic battle between the Children of Light and the Children of Darkness, and the Rule of the Community, which contains the rules of the sect thought to have composed many of the Scrolls.


Qumran Cave 2:3)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-2/

Discovered by archaeologists who had been excavating the site of Qumran, Cave 2 was found in February 1952 near Cave 1. It contained fragments of many Biblical books, including all Five Books of Moses (the Book of Leviticus is written in old Hebrew script), Jeremiah, Psalms and others, and the apocryphal Book of Enoch. Also found were thongs (photo above) used for tying the scrolls.


Qumran Cave 3:4)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-3/

Cave 3 was found by archaeologists in March 1952. It contained fragments of Ezekiel, Psalms, Lamentations and a commentary on Isaiah, but the most unusual find was the Copper Scroll, a long inscribed metal sheet, which may be a list of Temple treasure.


FURTHER READING


LINK Doc. No. Book Title Cite Author
   3Q015 The Mysterious Copper Scroll Bible Review 8:04, Aug 1992 By P. Kyle McCarter Jr.


Qumran Cave 4:5)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-4/

The mother lode of manuscript fragments. Cave 4 was found in August 1952 by Bedouin exploring literally right under the noses of the archaeologists excavating Qumran on the plateau above. The cave contained 575 manuscripts, most of them in tatters, including parts of Biblical and apocryphal books, Biblical commentaries, works on Jewish law, prayers and sectarian documents. Due to their poorly preserved state, the fragments from Cave 4 were generally the most difficult to decipher and translate.


FURTHER READING


LINK Doc. No. Book Title Cite Author
   4Q184 Beware the Wiles of the Wanton Woman Biblical Archaeology Review 9:04, Jul/Aug 1983 By Magen Broshi
   4Q184 The Seductress of Qumran Bible Review 17:05, Oct 2001 Joseph M. Baumgarten
   4Q285 A Pierced or Piercing Messiah?—The Verdict Is Still Out Biblical Archaeology Review 18:06, Nov/Dec 1992 by James D. Tabor
   4Q285 The “Pierced Messiah” Text—An Interpretation Evaporates Biblical Archaeology Review 18:04, Jul/Aug 1992 Prof. Robert Eisenman
   4Q395 For This You Waited 35 Years Biblical Archaeology Review 20:06, Nov/Dec 1994 Elisha Qimron and John Strugnell
   4Q445 Who Was He? Rare DSS Text Mentions King Jonathan Biblical Archaeology Review 20:01, Jan/Feb 1994 by Esther Eshel, Hanan Eshel and Ada Yardeni
   4Q521 The Messiah at Qumran Biblical Archaeology Review 18:06, Nov/Dec 1992 By James D. Tabor and Michael O. Wise
   4Q541 The Suffering Servant at Qumran Bible Review 9:06, Dec 1993 By John J. Collins
   4Q550 Has Every Book of the Bible Been Found Among the Dead Sea Scrolls? Bible Review 12:05, Oct 1996 By Sidnie White Crawford


Qumran Cave 5:6)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-5/

Found near Cave 4 in September 1952, cave 5 was excavated by archaeologists and yielded primarily Biblical texts.


Qumran Cave 6:7)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-6/

Cave 6 contained Biblical works, hymns and other prayers and sectarian documents. It was found by Bedouin.


Qumran Cave 7:8)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-7/

Caves 7, 8, 9 and 10 were discovered near the site of Qumran between February and April 1955. Cave 7 contained works in Greek, including a Greek translation of the Book of Exodus.


Qumran Cave 8:9)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-8/

Caves 7, 8, 9 and 10 were discovered near the site of Qumran between February and April 1955. Cave 8 contained fragments of Genesis and Psalms and liturgical texts.


Qumran Cave 9:10)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-9/

Caves 7, 8, 9 and 10 were discovered near the site of Qumran between February and April 1955. Cave 9 contained only a papyrus fragment.


Qumran Cave 10:11)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-10/

Caves 7, 8, 9 and 10 were discovered near the site of Qumran between February and April 1955. Cave 10 yielded only an inscribed potsherd.


Qumran Cave 11:12)http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-11/

Discovered by Bedouin in February 1956, Cave 11 contained Biblical and apocryphal texts but its most notable manuscript was the Temple Scroll, the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls and apparently an additional book of the Torah. The Temple Scroll was not recovered by scholars until 1967.


Further Reading:


LINK Doc. No. Book Title Cite Author
   11Q002 Paleo-Hebrew vs. Old Hebrew: The Long and the Short of It Biblical Archaeology Review 23:02, March/April 1997 By Frank Moore
   11Q018-019 Is the Temple Scroll a Sixth Book of the Torah—Lost for 2,500 Years? Biblical Archaeology Review 13:06, Nov/Dec 1987 By Hartmut Stegemann
   11Q018-019 The Temple Scroll—The Longest and Most Recently Discovered Dead Sea Scroll. Biblical Archaeology Review 10:05, Sep/Oct 1984 By Yigael Yadin


SOURCES


Cave 1.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 1.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 2.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 2.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 3.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 3.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 4.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 4.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2.

Cave 4.0.3) Source: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 5.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 5.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 6.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 6.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 7.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 7.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 8.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 8.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 9.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 9.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 10.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 10.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cave 11.0.1) Source: Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Cave 11.0.2) Source: Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Source: http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/


Related: 

SACRED TEXT (NON CANONISED)


Related: Early Jewish Writings

References   [ + ]

1. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/category/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/
2. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents/
3. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-2/
4. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-3/
5. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-4/
6. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-5/
7. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-6/
8. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-7/
9. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-8/
10. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-9/
11. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-10/
12. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/dead-sea-scrolls/caves-and-contents-cave-11/

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