Words in the Bible Translated: HELL

DO YOU REALLY WANT WHAT IS HERE?

Revelation 21:8
But the cowardly, the unbelieving, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those who practice magic arts, the idolaters and all liars–their place will be in the fiery lake of burning sulfur. This is the second death.”

Hell in the New Testament

Three different New Testament words appear in most English translations as “hell”:

Table 1.0 

Greek NT NT occurrences KJV NKJV NASB NIV ESV CEV NLT
ᾅδης (Hades)[n1] 9[n2] hell (9/10)[n3] Hades (10/10) Hades (9/9) Hades (7/9 or 4/9)[n4] Hades (8/9)[n5] death’s kingdom (3/9)[n6] grave (6/9)[n7]
γέεννα (Gehenna)[n8] 12[n9] hell hell hell hell hell hell hell
ταρταρῶ (Tartarō̂, verb)[n10] 1[n11] hell hell hell hell hell hell hell

The most common New Testament term translated as “hell” is γέεννα (gehenna), a direct loan of Hebrew גהנום/גהנם (ge-hinnom). Apart from one use in James 3:6, this term is found exclusively in the synoptic gospels.1)New Bible Dictionary 3rd ed., IVP, Leicester 1996. Article “Hell”, pages 463-464 2)New Dictionary of Biblical Theology; IVP Leicester 2000, “Hell” 3)Evangelical Alliance Commission on Truth and Unity Among Evangelicals [ACUTE] [2000]. The Nature of Hell. Paternoster, London. pp. 42–47. Gehenna is most frequently described as a place of fiery torment (e.g., Matthew 5:22, 18:8-9; Mark 9:43-49); other passages mention darkness and “weeping and gnashing of teeth” (e.g., Matthew 8:12; 22:13).4)New Dictionary of Biblical Theology; IVP Leicester 2000, “Hell”

Apart from the use of the term gehenna (translated as “hell” or “hell fire” in most English translations of the Bible; sometimes transliterated, or translated differently)5)PHILLIPS[21]6)AMP[22]7)YLT the Johannine writings refer to the destiny of the wicked in terms of “perishing”, “death” and “condemnation” or “judgment”. Paul speaks of “wrath” and “everlasting destruction” (cf. Romans 2:7-9; 2 Thessalonians), while the general epistles use a range of terms and images including “raging fire” (Hebrews 10:27), “destruction” (2 Peter 3:7), “eternal fire” (Jude 1:7) and “blackest darkness” (Jude 1:13). The Book of Revelation contains the image of a “lake of fire” and “burning sulphur” where “the devil, the beast, and false prophet” will be “tormented day and night for ever and ever” (Revelation 20:10) along with those who worship the beast or receive its mark (Revelation 14:11).8)Evangelical Alliance Commission on Unity and Truth among Evangelicals [2000]. The Nature of Hell. Acute, Paternoster [London].

The New Testament also uses the Greek word hades, usually to refer to the abode of the dead (e.g., Acts 2:31; Revelation 20:13).9)New Bible Dictionary 3rd edition, IVP Leicester 1996. “Sheol”. Only one passage describes hades as a place of torment, the parable of Lazarus and Dives (Luke 16:19-31). Jesus here depicts a wicked man suffering fiery torment in hades, which is contrasted with the bosom of Abraham, and explains that it is impossible to cross over from one to the other. Some scholars believe that this parable reflects the intertestamental Jewish view of hades (or sheol) as containing separate divisions for the wicked and righteous.10)New Bible Dictionary 3rd edition, IVP Leicester 1996. “Sheol”. 11)Evangelical Alliance Commission on Unity and Truth among Evangelicals [2000]. The Nature of Hell. Acute, Paternoster [London]. In Revelation 20:13-14 hades is itself thrown into the “lake of fire” after being emptied of the dead.

Parables of Jesus concerning the hereafter

In the eschatological discourse of Matthew 25:31-46, Jesus says that, when the Son of Man comes in his glory, he will separate people from one another as a shepherd separates sheep from goats, and will consign to everlasting fire those who failed to aid “the least of his brothers”. This separation is stark, with no explicit provision made for fine gradations of merit or guilt:12)“hell.”Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 4 Mar. 2013.

Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not invite me in, I needed clothes and you did not clothe me, I was sick and in prison and you did not look after me. …whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for me.

— Matthew 25:41–43 (NIV)

In a parable about “The Rich Man and Lazarus” in Luke 16:19-31, the poor man Lazarus enjoys a blissful repose in the “bosom of Abraham” (Luke 16:22), while the rich man who was happy in life is tormented by fire in Hades (Luke 16:23-24), the two realms being separated by a great chasm (Luke 16:26).

Biblical terminology

Sheol

In the King James Bible, the Old Testament term Sheol is translated as “hell” 31 times,13)Deut. 32:22, Deut. 32:36a & 39, II Sam. 22:6, Job 11:8, Job 26:6, Psalm 9:17, Psalm 16:10, Psalm 18:5, Psalm 55:15, Psalm 86:13, Ps. 116:3, Psalm 139:8, Prov. 5:5, Prov. 7:27, Prov. 9:18, Prov. 15:11, Prov. 15:24, Prov. 23:14, Prov. 27:20, Isa. 5:14, Isa. 14:9, Isa. 14:15, Isa. 28:15, Isa. 28:18, Isa. 57:9, Ezek. 31:16, Ezek. 31:17, Ezek. 32:21, Ezk. 32:27, Amos 9:2, Jonah 2:2, Hab. 2:5 and as “the grave” 31 times.14)Gen. 37:35, Gen. 42:38, Gen. 44:29, Gen. 44:31, I Sam. 2:6, I Kings 2:6, I Kings 2:9, Job 7:9, Job 14:13, Job 17:13, Job 21:13, Job 24:19, Psalm 6:5, Psalm 30:3, Psalm 31:17, Psalm 49:14, Psalm 49:14, Psalm 49:15, Psalm 88:3, Psalm 89:48, Prov. 1:12, Prov. 30:16, Ecc. 9:10, Song 8:6, Isa. 14:11, Isa. 38:10, Isa. 38:18, Ezek. 31:15, Hosea 13:14, Hosea 13:14, Psalm 141:7 Sheol is also translated as “the pit” three times.15)Num. 16:30, Num. 16:33, Job 17:16

Modern translations typically render Sheol as “the grave”, “the pit”, or “death”.

Abaddon

The Hebrew word abaddon, meaning “destruction”, is sometimes interpreted as a synonym of “hell”.16)Roget’s Thesaurus, VI. V.2, “Hell”

Gehenna

In the New Testament, both early (i.e., the KJV) and modern translations often translate Gehenna as “hell”.17)Mat. 5:29, Mat. 5:30, Matt. 10:28, Matt. 23:15, Matt. 23:33, Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:47, Luke 12:5, Matt. 5:22,Matt. 18:9, Jas. 3:6 Young’s Literal Translation and New World Translation are notable exceptions, simply using “Gehenna”.

Hades

Hades is the Greek word traditionally used for the Hebrew word Sheol in works such as the Septuagint, the Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible. Like other first-century Jews literate in Greek, Christian writers of the New Testament employed this usage. While earlier translations most often translated Hades as “hell”, as does the King James Version, modern translations use the transliteration “Hades”,18)Acts 2:27, New American Standard Bible or render the word as allusions “to the grave”,19)Acts 2:27, New International Version[104] “among the dead”,20)Acts 2:27, New Living Translation[105] “place of the dead”21)Luke 16:23, New Living Translation or similar statements. In Latin, Hades could be translated as Purgatorium (Purgatory) after about 1200 AD,22)Catholic for a Reason, edited by Scott Hahn & Leon Suprenant, copyright 1998 by Emmaus Road Publishing, Inc., chapter by Curtis Martin, pg 294-295 but no modern English translations render Hades as Purgatory.

Tartarus

Appearing only in 2 Peter 2:4 in the New Testament, both early and modern translations usually translate Tartarus as “hell”, though a few render it as “Tartarus”

.


   Notes: Table 1.0 
note-icon    n1  Hades
note-icon     n2 Matthew 11:23; Matthew 16:18; Luke 10:15; Acts 2:27; Acts 2:31; Rev 1:18; Rev 6:8; Rev 20:13-14. Some late Greek manuscripts, which are followed by KJV and NKJV, have ᾅδης in 1 Cor. 15:55
note-icon     n3  The King James Version translates “ᾅδης” 9 times as “hell” and once as “grave” (in 1 Cor. 15:55)
note-icon     n4  The 2010 New International Version translates “ᾅδης” 7 times as “Hades”, and 2 times as “realm of the dead”; the 1984 NIV translates it 4 times as “Hades”, twice as “depths”, twice as “grave”, and once as “hell”.
note-icon     n5  The English Standard Version translates “ᾅδης” 8 times as “Hades” and once as “hell”.
note-icon     n6  The Contemporary English Version translates “ᾅδης” twice as “hell”, once as “death”, twice as “grave”, once as “world of the dead”, three times as “death’s kingdom”.
note-icon     n7  The New Living Translation renders “ᾅδης” once as “place of the dead”, twice as “the dead” and six times as “the grave”.
note-icon     n8  Gehenna
note-icon     n9 Matthew 5:22; Matthew 5:29; Matthew 5:30; Matthew 10:28; Matthew 18:9; Matthew 23:15; Matthew 23:33; Mark 9:43; Mark 9:45; Mark 9:47; Luke 12:5; James 3:6.
note-icon     n10  ταρταρόω (uncontracted form of the contracted verb ταρταρῶ used in the New Testament)
note-icon     n11 2 Peter 2:4

Related

Christian views on hell

Christian views on hades

 

Hell, Sheol, Hades, Paradise, and the Grave

What the Bible Says About Hell

Underworlds (All Known Cultures & Religions)

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_views_on_hell#Hell_in_the_New_Testament

References   [ + ]

1. New Bible Dictionary 3rd ed., IVP, Leicester 1996. Article “Hell”, pages 463-464
2, 4. New Dictionary of Biblical Theology; IVP Leicester 2000, “Hell”
3. Evangelical Alliance Commission on Truth and Unity Among Evangelicals [ACUTE] [2000]. The Nature of Hell. Paternoster, London. pp. 42–47.
5. PHILLIPS
6. AMP
7. YLT
8, 11. Evangelical Alliance Commission on Unity and Truth among Evangelicals [2000]. The Nature of Hell. Acute, Paternoster [London].
9, 10. New Bible Dictionary 3rd edition, IVP Leicester 1996. “Sheol”.
12. “hell.”Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 4 Mar. 2013.
13. Deut. 32:22, Deut. 32:36a & 39, II Sam. 22:6, Job 11:8, Job 26:6, Psalm 9:17, Psalm 16:10, Psalm 18:5, Psalm 55:15, Psalm 86:13, Ps. 116:3, Psalm 139:8, Prov. 5:5, Prov. 7:27, Prov. 9:18, Prov. 15:11, Prov. 15:24, Prov. 23:14, Prov. 27:20, Isa. 5:14, Isa. 14:9, Isa. 14:15, Isa. 28:15, Isa. 28:18, Isa. 57:9, Ezek. 31:16, Ezek. 31:17, Ezek. 32:21, Ezk. 32:27, Amos 9:2, Jonah 2:2, Hab. 2:5
14. Gen. 37:35, Gen. 42:38, Gen. 44:29, Gen. 44:31, I Sam. 2:6, I Kings 2:6, I Kings 2:9, Job 7:9, Job 14:13, Job 17:13, Job 21:13, Job 24:19, Psalm 6:5, Psalm 30:3, Psalm 31:17, Psalm 49:14, Psalm 49:14, Psalm 49:15, Psalm 88:3, Psalm 89:48, Prov. 1:12, Prov. 30:16, Ecc. 9:10, Song 8:6, Isa. 14:11, Isa. 38:10, Isa. 38:18, Ezek. 31:15, Hosea 13:14, Hosea 13:14, Psalm 141:7
15. Num. 16:30, Num. 16:33, Job 17:16
16. Roget’s Thesaurus, VI. V.2, “Hell”
17. Mat. 5:29, Mat. 5:30, Matt. 10:28, Matt. 23:15, Matt. 23:33, Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:47, Luke 12:5, Matt. 5:22,Matt. 18:9, Jas. 3:6
18. Acts 2:27, New American Standard Bible
19. Acts 2:27, New International Version
20. Acts 2:27, New Living Translation
21. Luke 16:23, New Living Translation
22. Catholic for a Reason, edited by Scott Hahn & Leon Suprenant, copyright 1998 by Emmaus Road Publishing, Inc., chapter by Curtis Martin, pg 294-295

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