In the late 17th and 18th centuries, Iraq was the scene of mounting conflict amongst the Arab tribes of the desert. To deal with this, as well as to defend the eastern frontier against Persian aggression, the Ottomans have allowed the Pashas (governors) of Baghdad to impose order on the province using Mamluq forces, recruited in Georgia. These pashas succeeded in imposing a measure of order on the desert tribes, and in extending their power throughout most of Iraq. They paid tribute to Constantinople, but otherwise governed as independent hereditary rulers within Iraq.
In 1747 the Mamluqs seized power from the pashas of Iraq. They have owed only nominal obedience to sultan. The Ottoman’s attempts to reassert effective control have been unsuccessful, and the Mamluqs behave as the rulers of an independent state.
This is particularly so in their dealings with Europeans. They sign treaties with them and allow the British East India Company to establish trading relations with them.
ORIGINAL SOURCE: timemaps.com